Category Archives: Elites

Ray House By Wallace Cunningham — Curves and Glass Walls Shape a Dramatic Seaside Residence

The bold structural curves of this residence evoke modernist architect John Lautner—one of Wallace Cunningham’s architectural heroes. In the living area, unobtrusive steel supports resemble cylindrical sculptures, while the cantilevered fireplace appears to hold the slope of the roof on its shoulders — the fire within arising from a bed of glass shards.

Open and radial in plan, the home’s configuration corresponds to the coastal landscape, to unobstructed panorama of sandstone-colored bluffs along the Pacific. “My object was to heighten the view, while disguising what we didn’t want to see as beautifully as possible,” the architect explains.

The site is buffeted by ocean winds, so a sheltered refuge was sought, so the plan radiates outward from a protected courtyard, away from breezes, and where the owners often dine. The most significant rooms are arranged along the continuous 20-foot-high wall of glass facing the ocean while other rooms, including a studio for the wife, are situated beside pocket gardens—poetic visual vignettes that happen to mask the neighboring houses.


Harmony House by Wallace Cunningham… Sky, Light, And Shadow As Structure

Wallace Cunningham, once a student in Frank Lloyd Wright’s Taliesin Fellowship, is one of the most effective contemporary architects to integrate built and natural environment. With Harmony House, Cunningham elevated that perspective to encompass the sky and its component, shadow.

As offered by Architectural Digest:

As a structure, the 10,000-square-foot house is not made of walls and ceilings but of piers and beams, staggered in plan and stacked atop each other in the roof. Glass fills the gaps between the segments, defining the membrane between inside and out. “My clients wanted to feel as though they were living outside, so I devised a simple three-dimensional construction system, like the tower of cards children build, to play with the idea of what’s enclosed and what’s not,” says Cunningham. As in Japanese houses, he brings overhangs well beyond the perimeter of the interior spaces, to form sheltered outdoor areas. “The architectural projections that frame the landscape also shape outdoor rooms,” he says. “They actually define as much exterior as interior space.”

After all was said, built and remembered, the clients did not name the house after a distant place. They call it Harmony. “They say that it’s harmonious with the view and the environment, that the house is at rest,” says Cunningham. “But it also goes back to my portrait of them. They’re ordered, and they have a sureness about them. I built the house to reflect their calm.”


Parmigiani “Tonda 1950″ Watch — Understated Elegance & Craftsmanship

Parmigiani Tonda 1950

Movement: PF 700
Automatic winding. 42 hour power reserve.
Calibre 13 ¼ ”’ – Ø 30 mm, thickness 2.6 mm
Frequency: 3 Hz – 21,600 Vib/h
29 jewels, 1 barrel.
“Côtes de Genève” decoration, hand bevelled bridges.
Oscillating micro-weight made from 950 platinum.

Functions: Hour, minute, small seconds at 6 o’clock.

Exterior: Round 3-part case: Ø 39 mm. Thickness: 7.8 mm.
Material: 18 ct rose gold, white gold. Polished finish.
Water resistance: 30 m.
Anti-reflective sapphire crystal.
Crowns: Ø 5 mm.
Case-back with sapphire crystal.
Individual number engraved on the case-back.

Dials: 2 variants, “Graphite” and “Grained white”.
Diamond-polished appliques, opaline background. Delta shaped hands with luminescent coating.

Wristlets: Alligator strap with ardillon buckle on rose and white gold, polished finish.

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Parmigiani’s newest movement – the twelfth in-house caliber from the manufacture – is the PF 700, an extra-thin automatic that powers the Tonda 1950. The movement is 30mm or 13 ¼ lignes in diameter and just 2.6 mm thick, with an off-center micro-oscillating weight in platinum 950.

The nickel silver main plate is sand-blasted, circular-grained and then rhodium-plated. The bridges are sand-blasted, rubbed-down or “Côte de Genève” decorated, then beveled by hand and, finally, rhodium-plated. Also note the attractive finish of each wheel, beveled, sunk, circular-grained on both faces, then gilded before cutting.

The Tonda 1950 case, with sapphire display back, measures a classic 39mm in diameter and 7.8mm thick. Available in rose gold with a grained white dial and white gold with a graphite dial, the Tonda 1950 is a study in stylish simplicity, and it is created entirely in-house, save for the crystals and strap.


Steve Jobs — (Also) Visionary in Design & Architecture

A few days ago one of the most influential figures in computing, product design, and — in many ways — architecture, died.

In the 70’s and 80’s, Steve Jobs helped to change the course of personal computing as the co-founder of Apple, bringing technology to the masses through design simplification. A 1981 ad from the Wall Street Journal makes the case clear, “Putting real computer power in the hands of the individual is already improving the way people work, think, learn and communicate and spend their leisure hours.”

Thirty years later over a hundred million people around the world learned about his death via notification on their iPhones and iPads. None of these devices are traditionally define as “computers;” none of these devises are wired to what’s call a “local network.”

As for product design, the “i” factor is well known worldwide and has been recognized by design masters such as Dieter Rams. In this field, Steven Paul Jobs’ legacy will last for a hundred years.

“In most people’s vocabularies, design means veneer. It’s interior decorating. It’s the fabric of the curtains, of the sofa. But to me, nothing could be further from the meaning of design. Design is the fundamental soul of a human-made creation that ends up expressing itself in successive outer layers of the product or service. When you’re a carpenter making a beautiful chest of drawers, you’re not going to use a piece of plywood on the back, even though it faces the wall and nobody will ever see it. You’ll know it’s there, so you’re going to use a beautiful piece of wood on the back. For you to sleep well at night, the aesthetic, the quality, has to be carried all the way through.” — Steve Jobs

Further exploring the world of design, Steve Jobs was a patron of architecture. Jobs worked with Bohlin Cywinski Jackson, one of the most renowned US architecture firms, to develop state-of-the-art retail stores around the world. In these iconic projects, glass — one of the most essential materials in architecture — moved to the next level of design, technology,and functionality. And here, Jobs was essential for Corning to develop “Gorilla Glass” that Apple applied vigorously to their most daring store designs such as the glass box store in Fifth Avenue, NYC and the glass cylinder store in Shanghai, China.

It is believe that these sheets of glass comprising Apple’s stores are the largest used in architecture, to be exceeded only by the new and huge curved glass walls of the upcoming new Apple World Headquarters designed by Sir Norman Foster and Steve Jobs.

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Apple’s original Fifth-Avenue glass store in NYC broke all retail architectural design traditions to invoke the heart of design simplicity, and in the process became a hot tourist destination, as well.

Apple’s New 2011 Revised Fifth-Avenue Cube Uses Just 15 Giant Sheets of Glass — Apple, famous for pushing materials to their limits in order to make ridiculously thin and strong gadgets, is doing the same for its flagship Fifth Avenue store in New York City. A remodel of the already perfectly good design will see the amount of glass panels of the iconic cube reduced from 90 panes to just 15. It seems that Apple’s minimalism knows no bounds.

Glass cylinder store in Shanghai, China — In July 2010, Apple opened its first retail store in China… Shanghai. The bound again made unbound, as Jobs worked with architects and glass manufacturers to created the glass-cylinder store.

The round glass store entrance tower, surrounded by two large skyscrapers and a substantial circular wall of concrete, includes a spiral glass staircase leading to an underground retail space – just like New York’s.

In both cases, the New York and the Shanghai designs represent a return to elementary geometry – simple basic forms, utilizing the transparency of glass to allow light into hard to reach spaces, just as Apple products brought illumination of user-friendly, simply-designed technology to the masses.

Other Notable Apple Store Designs:

Carrousel du Louvre

Hong Kong IFC

Ginza Tokyo

Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica (glass-roofed Apple retail store)

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As in architecture where Steve Jobs’ influence has produced many breakthroughs related to manufacturing, most of Apple’s product design innovations relate to manufacturing, as seen on the Macbook Unibody aluminum design and for which every one of the world’s existing, highly technical laser cutting manufacturing machines for the unibody is devoted exclusively to Apple product manufacturing.

“Stay hungry. Stay foolish” — Steve Jobs

And the new Apple Campus in Cupertino, commissioned to Foster + Partners, is what culminates all the discussion points above into one ground-shaking building with new sustainable technologies and resource utilization. Curved glass, a new way to conceive office space planning, low impact on the existing site while providing more green areas, integrated design and a state of the art sustainable strategy… all will be Steve Jobs’ legacy for architecture when doors open in 2015.

“It’s a circle, and so it’s curved all the way around. As you know if you build things, this is not the cheapest way to build something. There’s not a straight piece of glass on this building, it’s all curved. And we’ve used our experience in making retail buildings all over the world now, and we know how to make the biggest pieces of glass in the world for architectural use.” — Steve Jobs

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Apple Inc. New World Headquarters – Designed By Lord Norman Foster & Steve Jobs

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Lord Norman Foster issued a tribute to Steve Jobs (1955-2011), who passed away yesterday at the age of 56. Foster + Partners is working on the new Apple Campus in Cupertino, scheduled to be completed in 2015.

With my colleagues I would like to pay tribute to Steve Jobs. Like so many millions our lives have been profoundly and positively influenced by the innovations pioneered by Steve and Apple, names which are inseparable.

We were greatly privileged to know Steve as a person, as a friend and in every way so much more than a client. Steve was an inspiration and a role model. He encouraged us to develop new ways of looking at design to reflect his unique ability to weave backwards and forwards between grand strategy and the minutiae of the tiniest of internal fittings. For him no detail was small in its significance and he would be simultaneously questioning the headlines of our project together whilst he delved into its fine print.

He was the ultimate perfectionist and demanded of himself as he demanded of others. We are better as individuals and certainly wiser as architects through the experience of the last two years and more of working for him. His participation was so intense and creative that our memory will be that of working with one of the truly great designers and mentors.

- Norman Foster Architect Chairman + Founder of Foster + Partners


Woolworth Mansion, NYC — For Sale… $90 Million

The Woolworth Mansion Off Fifth Avenue – East 80th Street – $90,000,000!

THE RETAIL MAGNATE
The Woolworth ‘Five and Dime” retail chain of Frank Woolworth expanded so rapidly at the turn-of-the-century that he afforded the design services of Charles Pierpont Henry Gilbert, the famed architect of New York City mansions in the French Gothic style. From 1911 – 1915, he engaged C.P.H. Gilbert to design  three townhouses on East 80 Street — one for each of his three daughters; Edna, Helena and Jessie. The mansion currently for sale, built for Helena, is the central and largest of the three at 35 feet wide, flanked by two 25′ wide sister buildings.

Described as a Gothic limestone castlette, the in-town mansion covers a massive 18,000 square. Ceilings are 14 feet high, and the building includes a roof garden, a gym, and a stained-glass skylight. An elevator services all levels.

Clearly, this townhouse will not suit the tastes of anyone but the ultra-rich, but even in our new robber-baron-era, it is constructed with enough aesthetic appeal to make people in the ultra-rich bracket look twice. But, at $90 million, it’s also expensive enough to make the uber-wealthy think twice, as well.

THE RESIDENCE
Completed in 1916, the imposing limestone facade of this neo-French Renaissance mansion features a central foyer opening to a grand entry hall providing access to the main residence.

Listing information for the magnificent mansion details that it contains 7 floors–all accessible by an elevator, 8 fireplaces, 5 principal bedrooms, 7 full and 2 half bathrooms, plus a two-bedroom staff quarters on the top floor and a full kitchen, and finally a gym. The full-floor master suite on the fourth floor includes an enormous bedroom, two sitting rooms, two dressing rooms and two bathrooms.

With a massive fireplace, the enormous entry includes three closets and an elegant powder room, access to a kitchen in the rear as well as the wide landing of the grand master staircase.

The parlour floor begins with a front drawing room spanning 35 feet with a huge fireplace, three floor-to-ceiling windows and a sensation of immense scale. The center landing affords a large sitting room that connects the front drawing room to the deep formal dining room. With the capacity to seat over 50, the dining room ends in a rear solarium morning room ideal for breakfast as it is positioned next to a serving kitchen. The kitchen includes a seating area, ample storage and a dumb waiter to the service kitchen below.

The third floor includes a 35 foot-wide wood-paneled library, wet bar, and powder room. In the rear there is a two-bedroom suite with two large full baths and ample closet space. The fourth floor is entirely the grand master suite. The fifth floor… servants quarters and gym.

The first five floors are capped by a brilliant stained-glass skylight positioned above the staircase.

Above, the sixth floor is an additional level presently built out for a private office with a full bath and a powder room, and an additional seventh floor is a two-bedroom staff suite with two full baths, a separate kitchen and elevator access. The lowest level includes a suite of offices and outdoor space.

While the other great mansions that have come on the market in New York have been shells requiring total renovation, this is the only mansion to be formally available that has been fully renovated in a traditional prewar style. Never before could one acquire such a magnificent building in this condition — truly a rare opportunity and a magnificent structure.

Can’t afford a $90 million mortgage with $330,000 per month mortgage payments? It’s also available for rent at $165,000/month.


Alfred Browning Parker: Miami’s Playboy Architect — Two Modern Home Designs

Alfred Browning Parker (1916-2011) was a Modernist architect best-known for post World War II residential architecture — first for the wealthy and later for the ecologically minded. Known as the “Playboy Architect of Miami” for his dashing good looks and high-society lifestyle, Parker gained fame for outstanding modern houses around Miami, Florida.

Influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright but with a tropically regional touch, Parker’s designs were notably published in magazines such as House Beautiful, as well as in companion books. A principal leader of “tropical organic architecture,” he was one of the most renowned and honored architects in Florida’s history — with over 500 structures to his credit.

The two houses he designed that I admire most — the “Mass Residence” and his own “Parker Residence” — exemplify the manner in which he harmonized a structure with Florida’s natural setting. His focus was not on creating “grand” homes but rather proportionally sized built environments appropriate to the setting, utilizing locally sourced materials and early explorations of environmentally efficient use of cross currents and shade.

Click On Images For Larger Sizes

MASS RESIDENCE (1954) Palm Beach, Florida – demolished

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PARKER RESIDENCE (1962) Coral Gables, Florida – existing


Entelechy I & II: The Magnificent Houses Of Architect John Portman

Recognized throughout the world for his innovative architectural design, John Portman rarely followed traditional paths. Driven to explore new design, construction, and interactive concepts, Portman charged forward in his career as a maverick who was nearly run out of the American Institute of Architects.

As a result, early in his career, he pioneered the role of “architect as developer” to allow more freedom in implementation of his design concepts — rather than “selling” his ideas to doubters or watering them down to suit the risk-averse nature of more plebeian developers. His shrewd business skills and entrepreneurial spirit empowered him to develop many profitable, boundary-defying projects: Peachtree Center in Atlanta, Embarcadero Center in San Francisco, Renaissance Center in Detroit, Marina Square in Singapore, Tomorrow Square in Shanghai, Yintai Centre in Beijing… to name merely a few.

To me, though, I appreciate and admire his most artistic and personal work expressed in the design of his two homes: Entelechy I in Buckhead-Atlanta and Entelechy II in Sea Island, Georgia.

Entelechy I & II represent an artistic conception of pure modernism. While remaining true to a mathematical and logical purity of design expressed through mid-century modernism, Portman has deftly asserted a creative and artistic flair matched by only a few of his peers. While I have not been inside his Atlanta home, I have had the rare privilege of visiting his Sea Island home, Entelechy II. So impressed by this masterpiece, I thought to myself as I left, “Some I have known strive to reach the ultimate house in their minds — the White House — but once at Entelechy II, no other house (or power) would suffice.” Truly, one could spend eternity in this Xanadu of Portman’s.

Click on Photos For Larger View

Entelechy I (1964)

Safari 4

Safari 6

 

Entelechy II (1986)


Renowned Scientist, Robert L. Snyder, Passed Away Sept. 1st — Forever Altered The Scientific & Material Course of History Through Nanotechnology

Robert L. Snyder

Co-Chair and Professor – School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

School Chair and Professor – College of Engineering, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Georgia Institute of Technology

  • B.A. Chemistry, Mathematics, and Philosophy, 1963, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
  • Ph.D. Physical Chemistry, X-ray Crystallography, 1968, Fordham University, Bronx, N.Y.

The World Will Be Forever Altered Due to Snyder’s Research & Success

Research Areas:

  • Synthesis, structural and property characterization of nano and bio-enabled materials

Snyder was most recently known for his stance, presentations, writings and advocacy called: “The New World Of Materials Science & Engineering: Nano/Bio Technology.” The two most important events in materials science and engineering in the past 50 years have been the introduction of surface free energy as a tool for creating new materials and the cracking of the genetic code of the entire biosphere. These two events are intertwined at the most fundamental level in that the key to the assembly of complex nanomachines lies within each of our cells. In his world-wide presentations, Dr. Snyder revealed why it is now time to turn this marvelous machine loose to manufacture materials and machines that have nothing to do with evolution.

While still maintaining an active interest in materials characterization using X-rays, Snyder’s active systems of latest study centered upon bio-inspired approaches to manufacturing and synthesis; nano-materials and the effect of surface free energy on materials properties in magnetic, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, semiconducting, superconducting, optoelectronic and phononic materials.

Examples of current research involve approaches to the fabrication of barium hexaferrite nano-structures, characterization of the kinetics and dynamics of incongruent reduction reactions to produce useful nanomachines, analysis of the defect types and densities in nano-devices.

Bioenergy/Biofuels

– Snyder also contributed to the development of energy generated from biomass for both vehicle fuel and power generation that is becoming a major technology focus for the nation. Snyder’s chairmanship oversaw biomass research programs at Georgia Tech that are making significant strides in developing technologies, such as the cellulosic ethanol from soft woods, rapid screening processes for liquid biofuels, and defining new methods for generating energy from alternative biomass combustion processes.

Built Under Snyder as Chair: Biotechnology Complex - Molecular Science & Engineering Buildings - Georgia Institute of Technology

Moreover, greater than one hundred computer programs for the treatment, processing, and analysis of X-ray crystallographic data have been authored by Dr. Snyder.  These programs written principally in FORTRAN are in use in laboratories around the world on all of the major computers.

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It is my privilege to have known and been friends with this brilliant person of the highest calibre. I will miss you, my friend.

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Distinctions

  • Distinguished Fellow, International Centre of Diffraction Data
  • Fellow, American Ceramic Society
  • Fellow, American Society of Metals
  • Chairman of Board  of Directors, International Centre of Diffraction Data, 1997-2000
  • Principal Editor, Journal Materials Research
  • Assoc. Editor, JAmCerSoc & Powder Diffraction
  • Hanawalt Award in X-ray Analysis 2004
  • TMS Leadership Award 2002
  • American Ceramic Society Outstanding Educator 1999

Dr. Robert L. Snyder served as a Professor and as Chair of the School of Materials Science and Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology… as well as Professor and Chair of the College of Engineering, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at the Georgia Institute of Technology

Snyder earned Bachelors Degrees in Chemistry, Mathematics, and Philosophy from Marist College and his Ph.D. for Chemistry, X-ray Crystallography from Fordham University. He entered the field of materials through his Ph.D. research and continued it as a postdoc at the University of Pittsburgh and NASA. Dr. Snyder began teaching at the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University in 1970 and rose through the academic ranks to Professor of Ceramic Science in 1982. He chaired the MSE Department at Ohio State from 1996 through 2002.

Built Under Snyder As Chair: Marcus Nanotechnology Research Center

He enjoyed extended leaves at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (1977), National Bureau of Standards (1980, 1981), Sandia National Lab (1987), Siemens Central Research Labs Munich (1983, 1991) and the Université de Rennes (1995).

Dr. Snyder was a Fellow of the American Ceramic Society, the American Society of Metals and a Distinguished Fellow of the International Center for Diffraction Data where he served in a number of capacities, most recently as Chairman of the Board of Directors.

He was a Principal Editor for the Journal Materials Research and the Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Dr. Snyder served on the organizing committees of a number of international conferences and Chaired the annual Denver X-ray Conference. He was named the American Ceramic Society Outstanding Educator and received the State University of New York Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching and the 2002 TMS Award for Materials Leadership as well as the 2008 TMS Educator Award.

He was the author of two textbooks, edited nine technical books and contributed chapters to nine books and encyclopedias. He held eight patents and has published over 265 papers on materials and materials characterization which have been cited by other authors more than 2000 times. Dr. Snyder presented over 1,000 talks around the world with over forty plenary and keynote lectures.

Bob and his wife, Sheila, earlier this year in Santorini

Patents

  1. K. H. Sandhage and R. L. Snyder, “Electrolysis Apparatus and Methods using Urania in Electrodes, and Methods of Producing Reduced Substances from Oxidized Substances, Including the Electrowinning of Aluminum” U.S. Patent 6,616,826 (2005).
  2. K. H. Sandhage and R. L. Snyder, “Electrodes, electrolysis apparatus and methods using uranium-bearing ceramic electrodes, and methods of producing a metal from a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, including the electrowinning of aluminum”, U.S. Patent 6,146,513 (2003).
  3. S. S. Bayya, R. L. Snyder, S. Gopalakrishnan and W. A. Schulze, “Process for Preparing a Thallium-Containing Superconductor,” U.S. Patent 5,385,882 awarded Jan 31 (1995).
  4. R. L. Snyder, J. J. Simmins and X. W. Wang “Process for Preparing Ferrite Films by Radio-Frequency Generated Aerosol Plasma Deposition in Atmosphere,” U.S. Patent
    5,213,851 awarded May 15 (1993).
  5. R. L. Snyder, X. W. Wang and H. Hsong, “Process for Preparing Superconducting Films by Radio-Frequency“, U.S. Patent 5,157,015 awarded Oct. 20 (1992).
  6. R. L. Snyder, X. W. Wang, H. M. Duan and A. Hermann, “Preparation of Thallium Superconducting Films Using an Atmospheric Plasma Vapor Deposition Process“, U.S. Patent 5,100,868 awarded March 31 (1992).
  7. R. L. Snyder, X. W. Wang and H. Hsong, “Atmospheric Plasma Vapor Deposition of Superconducting Thin Films“, U.S. Patent 5,120,703 awarded June 9, (1992).
  8. A. Bhargava, A. K. Varshneya and R. L. Snyder, “Superconducting Glass-Ceramics made by controlled crystallization from glass“, U.S. Patent 4,970,195 awarded Nov. 13, (1990).
  9. A. Bhargava and R. L. Snyder, “Process for preparing a barium-titanate film“, U.S. Patent 4,959,089 awarded Sept. 25 (1990).

Books and Chapters

  1. T. Blanton, G. Havrilla, T. C. Huang, J. A. Anzelmo, Victor E. Burke, W. T. Elam, I. C. Noyan, J. Kaduk, B. Toby and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 52 ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2009).
  2. T. C. Huang, J. A. Anzelmo, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 51 ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2008).
  3. T. C. Huang, J. A. Anzelmo, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, J. A. Kaduk, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 50 ICDD Newtown Square PA,  (2007).
  4. K. H. Sandhage, S. M. Allan, M. B. Dickerson, E. M. Ernst, C. S. Gaddis, S. Shian, M. R. Weatherspoon, G. Ahmad, Y. Cai, M. S. Haluska, R. L. Snyder, R. R. Unocic, and F. M. Zalar, “Inorganic Preforms of Biological Origin: Shape-Preserving Reactive Conversion of Biosilica Microshells (Diatoms),” pp235-253, in Handbook of Biomineralization, Eds. E. Bauerlein, P. Behrens, Vol. 2, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany (2007).
  5. T. C. Huang, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, J. A. Kaduk, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 49 ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2006).
  6. T. C. Huang, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, J. A. Kaduk, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 48, ICDD Newtown Square PA,  (2005).
  7. T. C. Huang, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 46, ICDD Newtown Square PA,  (2004).
  8. T. C. Huang, Randolph Barton Jr., Ron Broton, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, Ron Jenkins, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 45, ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2003).
  9. T. C. Huang, Randolph Barton Jr., Ron Broton, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, Ron Jenkins, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 44, ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2002).
  10. T. C. Huang, Randolph Barton Jr., Ron Broton, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, Ron Jenkins, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki, D. K. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 43, ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2001).
  11. S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “X-ray Analysis,” chapter in Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering, R. W. Cahn and E. Lifshin, ed., Pergamon Press New York (2001).
  12. T. C. Huang, Randolph Barton Jr., Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, Ron Jenkins, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki, D. K. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 42, ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2000).
  13. J. V. Gilfrich, T. C. Huang, C. R. Hubbard, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki, D. K. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 41, Plenum, (1999).
  14. R. L. Snyder, J. Fiala and H. J. Bunge, Defect and Microstructure Analysis by Diffraction, Oxford University Press, Oxford 785 pp. (1999).
  15. Fiala, J. and Snyder, R. L. “Introduction to Defect and Microstructure Analysis or the Analysis of Real Structure” in Defect and Microstructure Analysis by Diffraction,  1-15, (1999).
  16. J. V. Gilfrich, T. C. Huang, C. R. Hubbard, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki, D. K. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 40, Plenum, (1998).
  17. R. L. Snyder, “X-Ray Diffraction,” X-ray Characterization of Materials, Eric Lifshin, editor.  Wiley-VCH Verlag SmbH, Weinheim, FRG. Chap. 1 p 1-103 (1999).
  18. J. V. Gilfrich, R. Jenkins, R. L. Snyder, M. A. Zaitz, I. C. Noyan, T. C. Huang, D. K. Smith and P. K. Predecki, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 39, Plenum, (1997).
  19. C. Park and R. L. Snyder “Structure of Ceramics,” chapter in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim, Germany, Vol. 10, (1996).
  20. R. Jenkins and R. L. Snyder, Introduction to X-ray Powder Diffractometry, John Wiley and Sons, New York 544 pp. (1996).
  21. R. L. Snyder, “Analytical Profile Modeling in Diffraction”, Chapter 7, 111-131 The Rietveld Method, Oxford University Press (1993).
  22. R. L. Snyder, “XRay Analysis”, Materials Science and Technology – a Comprehensive Treatment, R. W. Cahn, P. Haasen and E. J. Kramer editors. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim, FRG, Vol 2, Chap. 4, p. 251-355 (1992).
  23. R. L. Snyder and D. Bish, “Quantitative Analysis by Xray Powder Diffraction”, Chapter 5 of Modern Powder Diffraction, D. L. Bish and J. E. Post eds. Reviews in Mineralogy Vol 20, 101145, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington D.C. (1989).
  24. R. L. Snyder, Chapters 4 and 5 of “Xray Powder Diffraction”, ACS Audio Visual Course, R. Jenkins, editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1989).
  25. R. L. Snyder, R. A. Condrate and P. F. Johnson, editors, Advances in Material Characterization II, Plenum Press, New York (1985).
  26. D. R. Rossington, R. A. Condrate, and R. L. Snyder, editors, Advances in Material Characterization, Plenum Press, New York (1983).

Refereed Papers

  1. Yue Shen, Jung-Il Hong, Sheng Xu, Hao Fang, Su Zhang, Yong Ding, Robert L. Snyder, and Zhong Lin Wang, “Fabrication of Arc-Shape Composite Nanowire Arrays by Pulsed Laser Deposition” Small (Submitted) (2009).
  2. S. Salman, O. Gunduz, S. Yilmaz, M.L. Öveçoğlu, Robert L. Snyder, S. Agathopoulos and F.N. Oktar, “Sintering effect on mechanical properties of composites of natural hydroxyapatites and titanium”, Ceramics International 35, 2965–2971 (2009)
  3. S. S. Lin, J-I. Hong, J. H. Song, Y. Zhu, H. P. He, Z. Xu, Y. G. Wei,Y. Ding, R. L. Snyder, Z. Z. Ye and Z. L. Wang, “Zn1-xMgxO Nanowire Arrays With Controllable Structure and Conductivity Type” Nanoletters (Submitted) (2009)
  4. N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome,Y. Bando, J. Chen, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires” Advanced Materials (submitted) (2009).
  5. Joonho Bae, Jung-Il Hong, Won Hee Han, Young Jin Choi, Robert.L. Snyder, “Superior Field Emission Properties of ZnO Nanocones Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition”, Chemical Physics Letters 476, 260-263 (2009)
  6. Jenny Ruth Morber, Xudong Wang, Jin Liu, Robert L. Snyder and Zhong Lin Wang, “Wafer-Level Patterned and Aligned Polymer-Nanowire/Nanotube-Arrays on any Substrate”, Adv. Mat 21, 1-5 (2009)
  7. Xu, Sheng; Wei, Yaguang; Kirkham, Melanie; Liu, Jin; Mai, Wenjie; Davidovic, Dragomir; Snyder, R.L.; Wang, Zhong Lin, “Patterned Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays on Inorganic Substrates at Low Temperature without Catalyst” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130 14958 (2008).
  8. Hong, Jung-Il, Zhong, Joonho Bae, Wang, Zhong Lin and Snyder, Robert L., “Room-temperature texture-controlled growth of ZnO thin films on general substrates and their application for growing aligned ZnO nanowire arrays” Nanotechnology, 20, 85609-85614 (2009).
  9. Melanie Kirkham, Zhong Lin Wang and Robert L. Snyder, “In-Situ Growth Kinetics of ZnO Nanowires”, Nanotechnology accepted  (2008).
  10. Daniel Moore, Jenny Ruth Morber, Robert L. Snyder, and Zhong Lin Wang, “Growth of Ultralong ZnS/SiO2 Core-Shell Nanowires by Volume and Surface Diffusion VLS process” , J. Phys. Chem C, February (2008).
  11. Kirkham, Melanie, Wang, Xudong, Wang, Zhong Lin and Snyder, Robert L., “Solid Au Nanoparticles as a Catalyst for Growing Aligned ZnO Nanowires: A New Understanding of the Vapour-Liquid-Solid Process” Nanotechnology 18(36), 365304 (2007).
  12. Rusen Yang, Yu-Lun Chueh, Jenny Ruth Morber,  Robert Snyder, Li-Jen Chou, Zhong Lin Wang, “Single-crystalline Branched Zinc Phosphide Nanostructures: Synthesis, Properties and Opotoelectronic Devices”, Nano Letters, 7(2), 269-275 (2007).
  13. E. Koep, C. Jin, M. Haluska, R. Das, R. Narayan, K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, M. Liu, “Microstructure and Electrochemical Properties of Cathode Materials for SOFCs Prepared via Pulsed Laser Deposition,” J. Power Sources, 161 [1] 250-255 (2006).
  14. Yong Ding, Jenny Ruth Morber, Robert L. Snyder, Zhong Lin Wang “Nanowire structural evolution from Fe3O4 to e-Fe2O3″, Adv. Func. Materials, 17, 1172-1178 (2007).
  15. Eric M. Ernst, Ben C. Church, Christopher S. Gaddis, Robert L. Snyder and Kenneth H. Sandhage, “Enhanced Hydrothermal Conversion of Surfactant-modified Diatom Microshells into Barium Titanate Replicas”, J. Mat. Res 22(5) 1121-1127 (2007).
  16. Jenny Ruth Morber, Yong Ding, Michael Stephan Haluska, Yang Li , J. Ping Liu, Zhong Lin Wang and Robert L. Snyder, “PLD Assisted VLS Growth of Aligned Ferrite Nanorods, Nanowires, and Nanobelts – Synthesis and Properties”, J. Phys. Chem. B,  110 (43), 21672-21679, (2006).
  17. I. Dragomir-Cernatescu, M. S. Haluska, K. H. Sandhage and R. L. Snyder “Residual Stress in 3-D MgO Diatom Replicas Synthesized by Low-Temperature Gas/Solid Displacement Reaction” submitted to Journal Materials Research (2005).
  18. Luo Qian, Dragomir-Cernatescu Iuliana, Hess Dennis W., Rees Will S. Jr. and Snyder Robert L. “Comparison of nitride HfO2 films deposited in O2 and N2O by direct liquid injection CVD” submitted to J. Electrochem. Soc. 53, F1 (2006)..
  19. M. S. Haluska, I. Dragomir-Cernatescu, K.  H.  Sandhage, and R.  L.  Snyder, “X-ray Diffraction Analyses of 3-D MgO-based Replicas of Diatom Microshells Synthesized by a Low-Temperature Gas/Solid Displacement Reaction” Powder Diffraction December 20(4) 306-310 (2005).
  20. K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, G. Ahmad, S. M. Allan, Y. Cai, M. B. Dickerson, C. S. Gaddis, M. S. Haluska, S. Shian, M. R. Weatherspoon, R. A. Rapp, R. R. Unocic, F. M. Zalar, Y. Zhang, M. Hildebrand, B. P. Palenik, “Merging Biological Self-assembly with Synthetic Chemical Tailoring: The Potential for 3-D Genetically-Engineered Micro/nanodevices (3-D GEMS),”Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 2 [4] 317-326 (2005).
  21. Oh, R., Dragomir-Cernatescu, I., Cochran, J., Snyder, R. L. “Residual Stress Analysis of A Co-Extruded Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Platform” submitted to J. Fuel Cells (2005).
  22. I. C. Dragomir, D. S. Li, G. A. Castello-Branco, H. Garmestani, R. L. Snyder, G. Ribarik, and T. Ungar, “Evolution of dislocation density and character in hot rolled titanium determined by X-ray diffraction”, J. Materials Char. 55, 66-74 (2005)
  23. Weatherspoon M.R., Haluska M.S., Cai Y., Summers J.S., Christopher J., Snyder R.L., Sandhage K.H., “Phosphor Microparticles of Controlled Three-Dimensional Shape from Phytoplankton,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 153 [2] H34-H37, (2006).
  24. I. C. Dragomir, G. A. Castello-Branco, G. Ribarik, H. Garmestani, T. Ungar and R. L. Snyder, “Burgers vector populations in hot rolled titanium determined by X-ray Peak Profile Analysis”, Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 23, 99-104 (2006)
  25. Haluska M.S., Misture S.T., Snyder R.L., Sandhage K.H., “A closed, heated reaction chamber design for dynamic high-temperature x-ray diffraction analyses of gas/solid displacement reactions,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 76 [12], 126101/1-126101/4 (2005).
  26. I. C. Dragomir , N. Thadhani, M. Gheorghe and R. L. Snyder, “X-ray Peak Profile Analysis of Crystallite Size Distributions, Dislocations Type and Density evolution in Nano-structured Cu obtained by deformation at liquid nitrogen temperature”, J. Mat Sci & Eng A, 402[1-2] 158-162 (2005).
  27. I. C. Dragomir , M. Gheorghe, N. Thadhani and R. L. Snyder, “Dislocation densities and character evolution in copper deformed by rolling under liquid nitrogen from X-ray peak profile analysis”, Powder Diffraction 20, 109-111 (2005)
  28. J.L. Reeves, V. Selvamanickam and R.L. Snyder “Reel-To-Reel Texture Analysis of HTS Coated Conductors Using a Modified GADDS System” Adv. X-ray Anal. (2003).
  29. M. B. Dickerson, K. Pathak, K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, U. Balachandran, B. Ma, R.D. Blaugher and R.N. Bhattacharya, “Applications of 2D Detectors in X-Ray Analysis,” Adv
    X-ray Anal. 45, 338 (2003).
  30. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder and K. H. Sandhage, “Dense, Near Net-Shaped, Carbon/Refractory Metal Composites at Modest Temperatures by the Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP) Method,” J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 85[3] 730-32 (2002)
  31. D. Sriram, R. L. Snyder and V. R. W. Amarakoon, “Anisotropic Thermal Expansion of Barium Hexaferrite Using Dynamic High Temperature X-ray Diffraction,” J. Mater. Res. 15 [6] 1349-1353 (2000).
  32. K. E. Kuehn, D. Sriram, S. S. Bayya, J. J. Simmins and R. L. Snyder, “Synthesis of Copper and Lithium Copper Ferrites as High Magnetization Materials,” J. Mater. Res. 15[7] 1635-1641 (2000).
  33. R. J. Castilone, D. Sriram, W. M. Carty and R. L. Snyder, “Crystallization of Zircon in Stoneware Glazes,” J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 82 2819-24 (1999).
  34. C. Park, D. H. Lee, R. A. Condrate and R. L. Snyder, “Surface Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectral Study of the Effect of Silver and Carbon in Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O7-,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(8) 2187-93 (1998).
  35. S. T. Misture, D. P. Matheis, R. L. Snyder, T. N. Blanton, G. M. Zorn and B. Seebacher, “Peritectic Melting Sequence of Bi-2212 and Bi-2212/Ag Measured Using in-situ XRD,”
    Adv. X-ray Anal. 39 723-729 (1997).
  36. M. Haller and R. L. Snyder, “The Structural Conditions for High Temperature Superconductivity,” JOM 49[10] 12-17 (1997).
  37. D. Sriram, T. T. Eagen, D. Cox and R. L. Snyder, “Site Occupancy in Rapidly Quenched Copper Ferrite, Cu0.5Fe2.5O4 Using Synchrotron Radiation,” Magnetic Materials (1998).
  38. C. Park, W. Wong-Ng, L. P. Cook, R. L. Snyder, P. V. Sastry and A. R. West, “Melting Investigations of Bi2Sr1.9Ca2.1Cu3O10+ by High Temperature X-ray Diffraction and Quenching,” Physica C. 304(3&4) 265-276 (1998).
  39. W. Wong-Ng, R. L. Snyder, C. Park, E. Antipov, and F. McClune, “The ICDD/PDF Superconductor MiniFile (SC),” Powder Diffraction 12(1) 13-15 (1997).
  40. L. M. Fisher, A. V. Kalinov, J. Mirkovic, I. F. Voloshin, A. V. Bondarenko, M. A. Obolenskii, and R. L. Snyder, “Critical Current Anisotropy and Fishtail in YBCO Single Crystal: Twin Boundary Effects,” Phys. Rev. Let. (1997).
  41. J. G. Fagan, R. L. Snyder, C. Hach, L. Jones, J. B. Ings, J. May, J. J. Simmins, “Aspects of Sintering Barium Hexaferrite with SiO2, Al2O3, CaCO3, and Y6Fe10O24 Additions for Microwave Applications,” J. Appl. Phy. 79: (8) 6341-6341 (1996).
  42. C. Park and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystal Structures of the High Temperature Cuprate Superconductors”, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. feature article 78  3171-94 (1995).
  43. P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski, R. Brückner, “Characterization of the Sn Diffusion Layer in the Surface of Float Glass using Grazing Incidence XRay Reflectometry and Fluorescence,” Glastech. Ber. Glass Sci Technol. 68 C1 314 (1995).
  44. C. Park, S. T. Misture, D. Sriram and R. L. Snyder. “Effect of Ag on Processing & Properties of Bi& Tlbased HTSC Materials,” J. Electronic Materials 24[12] 1897-902 (1995).
  45. S. T. Misture, D. P. Matheis, R. L. Snyder, T. N. Blanton, G. M. Zorn, and B. Seebacher, HighTemperature XRD Study of the Peritectic Reactions of Bi2212 With and Without Ag  Additions,” Physica C 250 175-183 (1995).
  46. S. T. Misture, C. Park, R. L. Snyder, B. Jobst, and B. Seebacher, “Powder Diffraction Data for Several Solid Solutions with the Compositions (Sr,Ca)CuO2 and (Sr,Ca)2CuO3,” Powder Diffraction 10  296-299 (1995).
  47. R. L. Snyder and B. J. Chen, “Dynamic Characterization in Advanced Manufacturing,”
    Adv. Xray Anal. 38 1-8 (1995).
  48. P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski and R. Brückner, “Xray Surface Characterization of Float Glass,” Adv. Xray Anal.. 38 705-709 (1995).
  49. C. Park and R. L. Snyder, “Perovskite Stacking in the Structures of the High Temperature Cuprate Superconductors,” Applied Superconductivity 3 73-84 (1995).
  50. J. G. Fagan, K. D. Vuong, D. T. Hoelzer, X. W. Wang, C. Q. Shen, V. W. R. Amarakoon and R. L. Snyder, “Examination of Y2Cu2O5 Additions on Microstructural Development in YBa2Cu3O7- Superconductors,” Applied Superconductivity 3 91103 (1995).
  51. J. G. Fagan, K. D. Vuong, D. Partis, J. A. A. Williams, T. Leone, V. W. R. Amarakoon, C. Q. Shen, X. W. Wang, B. J. Chen, and R. L. Snyder, “Influence of Excess Yttrium Additions in the YBa2Cu3O7- System During Melt Processing, “Applied Superconductivity 3 123131 (1995).
  52. J. G. Fagan, A. Barus, C. Q. Shen, K. D. Vuong, X. W. Wang, B. J. Chen, R. L. Snyder and V. W. R. Amarakoon, “Comparative Evaluation of MeltTexturing Methods to Produce High Jc YBa2Cu3O7-,” Applied Superconductivity (1995).
  53. L. M. Fisher, J. Mirkovic, I. F. Voloshin, N. M. Makarov, V. A. Yampol’skii, F. Perez Rodriguez and R. L. Snyder, “Frequency Limitations on the Applicability of the Critical State Model”, Applied Superconductivity 2 685-687 (1994).
  54. L. M. Fisher, A. V. Kalinov, J. Mirkovic. I. F. Voloshin, S. A. Zver’kov, A. Bondarenko, M. Obolenskii, V. A. Yampolskii, and R. L. Snyder, “Anisotropy of AC Magnetic Susceptibility and Jc in YBCO Bulk Textured Samples and Single Crystals,” Applied Superconductivity 2 639-43 (1994).
  55. C. Q. Shen, K. D. Vuong, J. A. A. Williams, A. Leone, R. L. Snyder, X. W. Wang, M. DeMarco, J. Stuckey, D. Petrov and M. J. Naughton, “Plasma Fabrication of BiSrCaCuO Superconductive Films and Nonsuperconductive NiFeO for hybrid Devices,” Applied Superconductivity 3 67-72  (1995).
  56. S. T. Misture, B. Seebacher and R. L. Snyder “Fabrication of BPSCCO-2223 Ag-Sheathed Conductors by Tape Casting”, Applied Superconductivity 3 113-116 (1995).
  57. C. Park, S. S. Bayya, D. Sriram and R. L. Snyder, “Effects of Silver Addition in the Single Layer Tl Superconductor”, Applied Superconductivity 3 139-146 (1995).
  58. M. A. Rodriguez, R. L. Snyder, J. J. Simmins, Y. M. Guo, R. A. Condrate, F. Rotella and J. Jorgensen, “The Crystal Structure of the YBa4Cu2CO3O5.5+ Oxycarbonate”,  J. Appl Cryst. 28 429-435 (1995).
  59. R. L. Snyder, “Manufacturing Advanced Materials,” Advanced Materials & Processes 894, 20-25 (1994).
  60. R. Kudesia, A. E. McHale and R. L. Snyder, “Effects of La2O3/ZnO Additives on Microstructure and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Zr0.8Sn0.2TiO4 Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77[12] 321520 (1994).
  61. C. Park, S. S. Bayya, S. Dattaguru and R. L. Snyder, “Effect of Silver Addition to the Singlelayer Tl Superconductors,” Physica C 235-240 543-544(1994).
  62. S. T. Misture, B. Seebacher, R. Hornung, G. M. Zorn and R. L. Snyder, “Tape Casting and Screen Printing Fabrication of BPSCCO2223 AgSheathed Conductors,” Physica C 235 -240 3397-3398 (1994).
  63. S. T. Misture, L. Chatfield and R. L. Snyder, “Accurate Powder Diffraction Patterns Using Zero Background Holders,” Powder Diffraction 9 172-179 (1994).
  64. D. P. Matheis and R. L. Snyder, “Analysis of the Modulated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 from Xray Powder Diffraction Data,” Powder Diffraction 9 28-37 (1994).
  65. S. S. Bayya, and R. L. Snyder, “SelfPropagating HighTemperature Synthesis (SHS) and Microwave Assisted Combustion Synthesis (MACS) of the Thallium Superconducting Phases,” Physica C. 83-90 (1994).
  66. D. P. Matheis, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “MeltTexture Processing and High Temperature Reactions of Bi2212 Thick Films,” Physica C. 217 319-324 (1993).
  67. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “Effect of Undercooling Temperature on the Solidification Kinetics and Morphology of YBCO During Melt
    Texturing,” Physica C 217 367-375 (1993).
  68. C. Park and R. L. Snyder, “XRay Powder Diffraction Data for the Superconducting Phase Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O6.5+,” Powder Diffraction 8 249-50 (1993).
  69. S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “Synthesis of Thallium Superconducting Phases via Melt Quenching,” Physica C 214 25-36 (1993).
  70. S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “Growth of Anisotropic Shaped Superconducting Particles in the TlBaCaCuO System, Physica C 208 69-78 (1993).
  71. R. Kudesia, A. E. McHale, R. A. Condrate, and R. L. Snyder, “Microwave Characteristics and Far IR Reflection Spectra of Zirconium Tin Titanate Dielectrics,” J. of  Materials Science 28 5569-5575 (1993).
  72. M. DeMarco, X. W. Wang, S. S. Bayya, R. L. Snyder, M. White, and M. Naughton, “Mössbauer and Magnetization Study of Ni Ferrites Prepared by a Plasma Deposition Technique,”  J. Appl. Phys. 73 [10] 6287-6289 (1993).
  73. D. P. Matheis, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “Phase Formation and Growth Mechanisms in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 GlassCeramics,” Physica C 207 134-142 (1993).
  74. L. M. Fisher, N. V. Ilin, I. F. Voloshin, N. M. Makarov, V. A. Yampolskii, F. Perez Rodriguez and R. L. Snyder, “On the Applicability of the Critical State Model to the Description of Electromagnetic Properties of HighTc Superconductors,” Physica C 206 195201 (1993).
  75. M. A. Rodriguez, R. L. Snyder, B. J. Chen, D. P. Matheis, S. T. Misture, V. D. Frechette, G. Zorn, H. Göbel, and B. Seebacher, “The High Temperature Reactions of YBa2Cu3O7-” Physica C 206 43-50 (1993).
  76. F. Spitulnik, X. W. Wang, R. Noble, D. J. Finnigan, V. R. W. Amarakoon and R. L. Snyder, “Continuous-Wave Nd:YAG Laser Deposition of Predominantly Cubic Phase CdS Films,” J. of Materials Synthesis and Processing, 1 [5] 335-340 (1993).
  77. R. Kudesia, R. L. Snyder, R. A. Condrate and A. E. McHale, “Structural Study of Zr0.8Sn0.2Ti4″ J. Phys. Chem of Solids 54 [6] 671-684 (1993).
  78. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, and R. L. Snyder, “A Study of Glass Formation and Crystallization of Y2O3-BaOCuOB2O3 GlassCeramics”, Glastechnische Berichte, 66 [2] 21-24 (1993).
  79. M. A. Rodriguez, J. J. Simmins and R. L. Snyder, “The YBa4Cu2O8.5+ An Interesting Nonsuperconductor”, J. Mater. Res. 8 [3] 415-420 (1993).
  80. R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Reference Intensity Ratios in Xray Quantitative Analysis,” Powder Diffraction, 7 [4] 186-193 (1992).
  81. B. J. Reardon and R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Ga2O3 and In2O3 in Forming Superconducting GlassCeramics in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O System”, Glastech. Ber., 65 [10] 287-291 (1992).
  82. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “Direct Observations of Textured YBa2Cu3O7- Crystal Growth from the Melt,” Physica C, 195 118-124 (1992).
  83. M. A. Rodriguez, B. J. Chen and R. L. Snyder “The Formation Mechanism of Textured YBa2Cu3O7-“, Physica C 195 185-194 (1992).
  84. R. L. Snyder, M. A. Rodriguez, and B. J. Chen, H. E. Göbel, G. Zorn, and F. B. Seebacher, “Analysis of YBa2Cu3O7- Peritectic Reactions and Orientation by High Temperature XRD and Optical Microscopy”, Adv. Xray Anal. 35, 623-632 (1992).
  85. D. R. Boehme, M. C. Nichols, R. L. Snyder and D. P. Matheis, “An Investigation of the Terich Uranium Tellurides Using Xray Powder Diffraction”, J. Alloys and Compounds, 179, 37-59 (1992).
  86. L. M. Fisher, V. S. Gorbachev, N. V. Ilin, N. M. Makarov, V. A. Yampol’skii, R. L. Snyder, S. T. Misture, J. A. Taylor, V. W. R. Amarakoon, M. A. Rodriguez, D. P. Matheis, A.M. M. Barus and J. G. Fagan, “Effect of Microstructure on the MagneticField Dependence of the Local Critical Current Density in YBa2Cu3O7- Superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 46 [17], 1098610996 (1992).
  87. A. Bhargava, A. K. Varshneya and R. L. Snyder, “Synthesis of Superconducting Ceramic Coated Metal Wires by a GlassCeramic Technique”, Matl. Ltrs. 11 313316 (1991).
  88. R. L. Snyder, M. C. Nichols and D. R. Boehme, “The Crystal Structures and Powder Diffraction Patterns of the Uranium Tellurides A Critical Review”, Powder Diffraction 6, 204 -227 (1991).
  89. R. S. Zhou and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystal Structures and Transformation Mechanisms of the ,  & ࿠Transition Aluminas”, Acta Cryst. B 47, 617-630 (1991).
  90. R. S. Zhou, M. M. Teeter and R. L. Snyder, “C3DCON: A Stereo 3D Electron Density Cage Contouring and Atomic Structure Plotting Program”, J. Appl. Cryst. 24 193-195 (1991).
  91. X. W. Wang, H. H. Zhong, and R. L. Snyder, “RF Plasma Aerosol Deposition of Superconductive YBa2Cu3O7- Films at Atmospheric Pressure”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 [15], 15811583, (1990).
  92. M. A. Rodriguez, D. P. Matheis, S. S. Bayya, J. J. Simmins, R. L. Snyder and D. E. Cox, “A Search for a Low Temperature Phase Transition Prior to Superconducting Behavior in the YBa2Cu3O7- Compound”, J. Mater. Res. Soc. 5 [9], 17991801 (1990).
  93. D. A. Norris, M. A. Rodriguez, S. K. Fukuda, R. L. Snyder, “XRay Powder Data for -Si3N4″, Powder Diffraction 5 [1], 225 (1990).
  94. D. P. Matheis and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystal structures and Powder Diffraction Patterns of the High Tc Ceramic Superconductors”, Powder Diffraction, 5 [1], 825 (1990).
  95. Y. H. Kao, Y. D. Yao, L. Y. Jang, F. Xu, A. Krol, L. W. Song, C. J. Sher, A. Darovsky, J. C. Phillips, J. Simmins and R. L. Snyder, “Effects of Silver Doping in the HighTc Superconducting System YBaCuO”, J. Appl. Phys. 67 [1], 353361 (1990).
  96. J. L. Porter, T. K. Vethanayagam, R. L. Snyder and J. A. T. Taylor, “Reactivity of Ceramic Superconductors with Palladium Alloys”, J. Amer. Cer. Soc. 73 [6], 1760 (1990).
  97. A. Bhargava, R. L. Snyder and A. K. Varshneya, “Preliminary Investigations of Superconducting Glassceramics in the BiSrCaCuO System”, Matl. Ltrs. 8 [10], 425431 (1989).
  98. P. H. McCluskey, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, Sr., “Infrared Spectral Studies of Various Metal Polyacrylates”, J. Solid State Chem. 83 [2], 332339 (1989).
  99. A. Plancon, R. F. Giese, V. A. Drits, A. S. Bookin and R. L. Snyder, “Stacking Faults in the Kaolingroup Minerals”, Clays and Clay Minerals, 37 [3], 203210 (1989).
  100. A. Bhargava, A. K. Varshneya and R. L. Snyder, “On the Stability of Superconducting Yba2Cu3O7- in a Borate Glassceramic Matrix”, Mater. Lett., 8 [12], 4145 (1989).
  101. Y. D. Yao, Y. H. Kao, J. J. Simmins, R. L. Snyder, Z. Tao and K. W. Jones, “Changes in the Physical Properties of the High Tc Superconductor YBaCuO Due to Copper Deficiency”, Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 3 [6], (1989).
  102. T. K. Vethanayagam, W. A. Schulze, J. A. T. Taylor and R. L. Snyder, “Inductance Technique for Measuring Transition Temperatures of Superconducting Powders”, Inter. J. of Modern Physics B, 3 [5], 763772 (1989).
  103. M.A. Rodriguez, J. J. Simmins, P. H. McCluskey, R. S. Zhou, and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystal Structure of the Cubic and Tetragonal Phases of YBa3Cu2O6.5+ and Yba4Cu2O6.5+”,
    Adv. in Xray Anal., 32, 497505 (1989).
  104. S. A. Howard and R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Direct Convolution Products in Profile and Pattern Fitting Algorithms I. Development of the Algorithms”, J. Appl. Cryst. 22, 238243 (1989).
  105. C. R. Hubbard and R. L. Snyder, “Reference Intensity Ratio Measurement and Use in Quantitative XRD”, Powder Diffraction, 3 [2], 7477 (1988).
  106. A. Bhargava, J. E. Shelby and R. L. Snyder, “Structure and crystallization studies on a ternary borate glass system”, J. NonCrystalline Solids, 102 [13], 136142 (1988).
  107. P. H. McCluskey, G. S. Fischman and R. L. Snyder, “Preparation and Thermoanalytic Studies of Yttrium Poly(acrylate)”, J. Therm. Analysis, 34 [56], 14411448 (1988).
  108. A. Bhargava, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, Sr., “Preparation of BaTiO3 glassceramics in the system BaTiBO, Part 1″, Mater. Lett., 7 [56], 185189 (1988).
  109. A. Bhargava, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, Sr., “Preparation of BaTiO3 GlassCeramics in the system BaTiBO, Part 2,” Materials Letters, 7 [5,6], 190196 (1988).
  110. G. S. Smith, Q. C. Johnson, D. K. Smith, D. E. Cox, R. L. Snyder, R. S. Zhou, A. Zalkin, “The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Beryllium Dihydride”, Solid State Commun. 67, 4914 (1988).
  111. A. Plancon, R. F. Giese, Jr. and R. L. Snyder, “The Hinckley Index for Kaolinites”, Clay Minerals 23 [3], 249260 (1988).
  112. M. Heuberger, A. Bhargava, and R. L. Snyder, “The Reproducible Production of Pure Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7- Mater. Lett. 11, 489494 (1987).
  113. A. Bhargava, M. Heuberger, and R. L. Snyder, “Effects of Atmosphere on YBa2Cu3O7- During Processing”, Mater. Lett. 11, 495499 (1987).
  114. J. E. Shelby, R. L. Snyder, A. Bhargava, J. J. Simmins, N. L. Corah, P. H. McCluskey, and C. Sheckler, “Thermoanalytic Study of the Superconducting Compound YBa2Cu3O7-“, Chemtronics 2, 130132 (1987).
  115. A. Bhargava, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, Sr., “The Raman and Infrared Spectra of the glasses in the System BaOTiO2B2O3″, Matl. Res. Bull. 22, 16031611 (1987).
  116. J. E. Shelby, A. Bhargava, J. J. Simmins, N. L. Corah, P. H. McCluskey, C. Sheckler and R. L. Snyder, “Atmospheric Effects During Thermal Cycling of Yba2Cu3O7- Superconductors”, Mater. Res. Lett., 5 [11-12], 420425 (1987).
  117. J. P. Cline and R. L. Snyder, “The Effects of Extinction on Xray Powder Diffraction Intensities”, Adv. in Xray Anal. 30, 447456 (1987).
  118. G. S. Smith, Q. C. Johnson, D. E. Cox, R. L. Snyder, D. K. Smith, A. Zalkin, “Synchrotron Radiation Applied to Computer Indexing”, Adv. in Xray Anal. 30, 383388 (1987).
  119. R. L. Snyder, “The Accuracy of Measurements and Data Evaluation in Xray Powder Diffraction”, Z. Krist., 162, 207208 (1983)(in German).
  120. R. L. Snyder, “Accuracy in Angle and Intensity Measurements in Xray Powder Diffraction”, Adv. Xray Anal., 26, 111 (1983).
  121. C. R. Hubbard, C. R. Robbins and R. L. Snyder, “XRD Quantitative Analysis using the NBS*QUANT82 System”, Adv. Xray Anal., 26, 149157 (1983).
  122. S. Cherukuri, R. L. Snyder and D. Beard, “Comparison of the Hanawalt and Johnson Vand Computer Search Match Strategies”, Adv. Xray Anal. 26, 99105 (1983).
  123. S. A. Howard and R. L. Snyder, “An Evaluation of Some Profile Models and the Optimization Procedures used in Profile Fitting”, Adv. Xray Anal. 26, 7381 (1983).
  124. J. P. Cline and R. L. Snyder, “The Dramatic Effect of Crystallite Size on Xray Intensities”, Adv. Xray Anal., 26, 111118 (1983).
  125. M. A. Krebs, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, “The Raman Spectra and XRay Powder Diffraction Data of Stabilized Hafnia Phases”, Mat. Res. Bull. 18, 10891093 (1983).
  126. R. L. Snyder, C. R. Hubbard and N. C. Panagiotopoulos, “A Second Generation Automated Powder Diffractometer Control System”, Adv. Xray Anal. 25, 245260 (1982).
  127. R. L. Snyder, “A Hanawalt Type Phase Identification Procedure for a Minicomputer”, Adv. Xray Anal. 24, 8390 (1981).
  128. C. L. Mallory and R. L. Snyder, “The Control and Processing of Data from an Automated Xray Powder Diffractometer”, Adv. Xray Anal. 22, 121132 (1979).
  129. S. T. Smith, R. L. Snyder and W. E. Brownell, “Quantitative Phase Analysis of Devonian Shales by Computer Controlled Xray Diffraction of Spray Dried Samples”, Adv. Xray Anal. 22, 181192 (1979).
  130. S. T. Smith, R. L. Snyder and W. E. Brownell, “Minimization of Preferred Orientation in Powders by Spray Drying”, Adv. Xray Anal. 22, 7788 (1979).
  131. G. S. Smith and R. L. Snyder, “Fn: A Criterion for Rating Powder Diffraction Patterns and Evaluating the Reliability of Powder Pattern Indexing”, J. Appl. Cryst. 12, 6065 (1979).
  132. T. D. Croft, J. S. Reed and R. L. Snyder, “Microstratified Mixing of Ceramic Systems: Viscosity Dependence”, Ceramic Bulletin, 57 [12], 11111115 (1978).
  133. J. W. Medernach and R. L. Snyder, “The Powder Diffraction Patterns and Structures of the Bismuth Oxides”, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 61 [1112], 494497 (1978).
  134. Chon Il Park, R. A. Condrate and R. L. Snyder, “The Raman Spectra of PerovskiteStructured Alkaline Earth Hafnates”, Appl. Spectroscopy, 30, 352353 (1976).
  135. R. Porter and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystallographic Modifications of MnO2″, American Mineralogist, 58 (1973).
  136. R. L. Snyder, E. L. McGandy, R. L. VanEtten, L. M. Trefonas and R. L. Towns, “The Crystal and Molecular Structure of 1,1Dibenzyl3,3Dimethylaztidinium Bromide”, Acta Cryst., S28, 29 (1972).
  137. R. L. Snyder and R. D. Rosenstein, “The Crystal and Molecular Structure of the 1:1 Hydrogen Bond Complex Between DGlucose and Urea”, Acta Cryst. B, 27, 1969 (1971).
  138. R. L. Snyder, R. D. Rosenstein, H. S. Kim and G. A. Jeffrey, “A Comparison of the Structures of the GlucoseUrea and GlucitolPyridine Hydrogen Bond Complexes”, Carbohyd. Res., 12, 153156 (1970).
  139. R. L. Snyder, E. L. McGandy, R. L. VanEtten, L. M. Trefonas and R. L. Towns, “A Planar Azetidinium Compound”, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 91, 6187 (1969).

Proceedings Papers and Major Reports

  1. K. Beyerlein, A. Cervellino, M. Leoni, R.L. Snyder and P. Scardi, “Debye Equation versus Whole Powder Pattern Modelling: Real versus Reciprocal Space Modelling of Nanomaterials”, EPDIC10-European Powder Diffraction, E. J. Mittemeijer ed., Materials Science Forum, Tans. Tech Publications, Zürich, in press (2009).
  2. Y. Cai, M. R. Weatherspoon, E. Ernst,  M. S. Haluska, R. L. Snyder, K. H. Sandhage, “3D Microparticles of BaTiO3 and Zn2SiO4 (Sol-Gel Acetate Precursor or Hydrothermal) Conversion of Biologically (Diatom) Templates,” Ceram Eng. Sci. Proc. 27[8] 49-56 (2007)
  3. K. H. Sandhage, S. Shian, C. S. Gaddis, M. R. Weatherspoon, Y. Cai, S. Yoo, M. S.
    Haluska, R. L. Snyder, Y. Liu, M. Liu, N. Ferrel, D. J. Hansford, M. Hildebrand and B. Palenik, “Biologically Enabled Synthesis of Nanostructured 3-D Sensor Materials: The Potential for 3-D Genically Engineered Microdevices (3-D GEMS), J. Rare Metal Mater.
    Eng. 35(3) 13-14 (2006).
  4. I. C. Dragomir , M. Gheorghe, N. Thadhani and R. L. Snyder, “Dislocation densities and character evolution in copper deformed by rolling under liquid nitrogen from X-ray peak profile analysis”, Adv. X-ray Anal. 48, 67-72 (2005).
  5. Raymond Oh, Iuliana  Dragomir-Cernatescu, Joe Cochran and Robert L. Snyder, “Residual Stress Analysis of A Co-Extruded Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Platform”, Mat. Sci & Tech Conf. (2005).
  6. M. R. Weatherspoon, S. H. Allan, C. S. Gaddis, Ye Cai, M.S. Haluska, R. L. Snyder and
    K. H. Sandhage, “Perovskite Partcles from Phytoplankton”, in Biological and Bioinspired Materials and Devices ed K. H. Sandhage, S. Yang, T. Douglas, A. R. Parker and E. Dimasi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symo. Proc. Vol. 837E (2005).
  7. Allan S.M., Weatherspoon M.R., Graham P.D, Cai Y., Haluska M.S., Snyder R.L., Sandhage K.H.,  “Shape-preserving chemical conversion of self-assembled 3-D bioclastic micro/nanostructures via low-temperature displacement reactions,” Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 26, [3], 289-296, (2005). [Best Paper Award].
  8. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder and K. H. Sandhage, “The Fabrication of Dense W-Rich W/ZrC  Composites by the PRIMA-DCP Process at 1300º C,” pp. 403-412 in Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XI vol 2, ed T. S. Srivatsen, R.A. Varin ASM International, Materials Park OH (2003).
  9. J. Nash, M. B. Dickerson, K. Pathak, K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, U. Balachandran, B.
    Ma, R. Blaugher, R. Battacharya, “Novel Closed Heating Chambers for Rapid in-situ HTXRD Analysis of Gas/Solid and Liquid/Solid Reactions”, pp 44-52, in Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XI vol 2, ed T. S. Srivatsen, R.A. Varin ASM International, Materials Park OH (2003).
  10. P. K. Gupta, P. M. Anderson, R. G. Buchheit, S. A. Dregia, J. J. Lannutti, M. J. Mills and R. L. Snyder, “The New Materials Science and Engineering Curriculum at The Ohio State University,” Proceedings of the Materials Research Society (2003).
  11. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder and K. H. Sandhage, “Low-Temperature Fabrication of Dense Near Net-Shaped Tungsten/Zirconium Carbide Composites with Tailored Phase Contents by the Prima-DCP Process,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. (Proc. Cocoa Beach Conf.) (2001).
  12. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder and K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid, Low-Temperature Fabrication of Very-High Melting ZrC/W-Bearing Composites by the Prima-DCP Process,” Proc. Spring TMS Meeting  (2001)
  13. Steven Baker, Julian G. Hill, Robert Snyder, Thomas W. Lester, Richard D. Tenaglia, “Breaking Down the Barriers to the Beneficial Reuse of Depleted Uranium,” Proc of 99 Waste Management Conf, Tempe AZ (1999).
  14. J. Faber, R. Jenkins and R. L. Snyder, “Use of Multiple Databases in X-ray Powder Diffractometry,” Proceedings of ISPA ’98 S. P. Sen Gupta ed., Allied Publishers Ltd., New Delhi p. 135-143 (1999).
  15. J. Faber, R. Jenkins and R. L. Snyder, “Use of Multiple Databases in X-ray Powder Diffractometry,” Proccedings of Japan Science and Technology Conference, (1998).
  16. B. J. Chen and R. L. Snyder, “The Application of Dynamic Characterization to the Melt Texturing of YBa2Cu3O7-“,  EPDIC5-European Powder Diffraction, R. Delhez and E. J. Mittemeijer eds., Materials Science Forum, Tans. Tech Publciations, Zürich, 278-281 (1998).
  17. R. L. Snyder, “Microstructure Analysis by Diffraction – The Beginning of the End,” Rigaku Journal (1996).
  18. D. Sriram, R. L. Snyder and V. R. W. Amarakoon, “Nanophase Copper Ferrite Using an Organic Gelation Technique,” Proceedings of Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. 457 81-87 (1996).
  19. C. Park, D. H. Lee, R. A. Condrate, Sr. and R. L. Snyder, “Relation between silver and residual carbon content in the processing Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O6.5+ Advances in Superconductivity VIII, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Superconductivity (ISS95) Hamamatsu, Japan, Editor: Hayakawa, Hisao, 391395 SpringerVerlag Tokoyo (1996).
  20. C. Park, M. Haluska and R. L. Snyder, “High temperature reaction sequence study of
    Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O6.5+,” Proceedings of the 7th USJapan Workshop on HighTc Superconductors,” Tsukuba, Japan, Editor: Tachikawa, Kyoji. (1995).
  21. D. Sriram and R. L. Snyder, “Advanced  Manufacturing of Fast Fired Whiteware Bodies via Dynamic Characterization,” Sci. Whitewares, [Proc.Sci. Whitewares Conf.] V. E. Henkes, G. Y. Onoda and W. M. Carty editors, The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH pp. 265280 (1996).
  22. R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Reference Intensity Ratios in Quantitative Analysis”, Proceedings of the Diffraction Methods in Materials Science, J. Hasek, ed. Nova Science Publishers, New York, 239-252 (1996).
  23. D. Sriram and R. L. Snyder, “Investigation of Copper Ferrite, Cu0.5Fe2.5O4, as a High Saturation Magnetization Material,” Symp. Proc. Series, Mat. Res. Soc., 401, 449-54
    (1996).
  24. Fisher, L.M.; Kalinov, A.V.; Mirkovic, J.; Voloshin, I.F.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Obolenskii, M.A.; Snyder, R.L. “Comparative Study of Anisotropy of the Critical Current Density in YBCO Melt Textured Samples and Single Crystals,” Russia. Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 148 (Vol. 1) 319-22 (1995).
  25. J. G. Fagan, K. D. Vuong, C. Q. Shen, J. A. Williams, E. Tenpas, D. Partis, X. W. Wang,
    V. W. R. Amarakoon, B. J. Chen and R. L. Snyder, “Influence of Excess Platinum and Yttrium Containing Additives on the Microstructural and Phase Formation Kinetics in the YBa2Cu3O7- System,” Proc. Intersoc. Energy Convers. Eng. Conf. IECEC 3 107316
    (1995).
  26. R. L. Snyder, “Intelligent Manufacturing of Advanced Materials,” Proceedings 41st Sagamore Conference p.293-303 (1994).
  27. S. S. Bayya, K. Kuehn, R. L. Snyder and J. J. Simmins, “Plasma Deposition of Ferrite
    Films,” Ceramic Transactions 47 295-304 (1995).
  28. K. Kuehn, S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “The Synthesis of Cu0.5Fe2.5O4 a New Record in Magnetization,” Ceramic Transactions 47 185-93 (1995).
  29. S. S. Bayya, C. Park and R. L. Snyder, “Molten Salt Powder Synthesis in the Development of Practical Superconductors,” Processing of Long Lengths of Superconductors, U. Balachandran, E. W. Collings and A. Goyal, editors, TMS Warrendale, PA. 185194 (1993).
  30. R. L. Snyder, “Quantitative Xray Powder Diffraction,” Giornate di Studio Diffrattometria a Raggi x su Materiali Policristallini, G. Berti, Vigo Cursi, Pisa Italy, 122 (1993).
  31. R. L. Snyder, S. T. Misture, and D. P. Matheis, “The GlassCeramic Route to Bismuth Superconductors,” Fundamentals of Glass Science and Technology,  Stazione Sperimentale del Vitro, Venice, 423426 (1993).
  32. B. J. Chen,  S. T. Misture, and R. L. Snyder, “A Study of MeltTexturing Effects in the YBa2Cu3O7-mB2O3 System,” Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 5, H. S. Kwok,
    D. T. Shaw and M. J. Naughton, editors, Am. Inst. of Phys. 356365 (1993).
  33. S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “Growth Anisotropic Tl2212 Particles by Molten Salt Synthesis,” Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 5, H. S. Kwok, D. T. Shaw and M. J. Naughton, editors, Am. Inst. of Phys. 575581 (1993).
  34. S. T. Misture, D. P. Matheis, and R. L. Snyder, “Preparation, Melting Sequences, and MeltTexturing of Bi2212 Thick Films, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 5, H. S. Kwok, D. T. Shaw and M. J. Naughton, editors, Am. Inst. of Phys. 582592 (1993).
  35. M. Mueller, K. Park, W. A. Edelstein, C. Park, S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “A Cryogenic ClassE RF Power Amplifier,” Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 5, H. S. Kwok, D. T. Shaw and M. J. Naughton, editors, Am. Inst. of Phys. 492-502 (1993).
  36. R. L. Snyder, “Reference Intensity Ratios, Whole Pattern Fitting and Standardless Xray Quantitative Analysis,” Accuracy in Powder Diffraction II, National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication, p. 25-33 (1992).
  37. X. W. Wang, R. Kudesia, J. Lou, J. Hao, R. L. Snyder, H. M. Duan and A. M. Hermann, “Deposition of Electronic Films by Atmospheric RF Plasma Aerosol Spray Techniques”, Thermal Spray: International Advances in Coatings Technology, ASM International, Metals Park, OH, 567574 (1992).
  38. R. L. Snyder, “Approaches to Bulk HighTemperature Superconductors”, Proceedings of the Fourth USJapan Workshop on Superconductivity, NIST, February (1992).
  39. R. L. Snyder, “Toward Practical HighTemperature Superconductors”, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 4, Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 252260 (1992).
  40. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “High Temperature Reactions and Orientation of YBa2Cu3O7-“, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 4, Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 312318 (1992).
  41. S. S. Bayya, G. C. Stangle and R. L. Snyder, “Synthesis of Superconducting Phases in the TlBaCaCuO System”, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 4 Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 261273 (1992).
  42. L. M. Fisher, V. S Gorbashev, N. V. Ilin, N. M. Makarov, I. F. Voloshin, V. A. Yampol’skii,  R. L. Snyder, J. A. T. Taylor, V. W. R. Amarakoon, M. A. Rodriguez, S. T. Misture, D. P. Matheis, A. M. M. Barus and J. G. Fagan, “The Universal Magnetic Field Dependence of the Local Critical Current Density in HighTc Ceramics”, Superconductivity and Its Applications,
    Vol. 4, Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 625636 (1992).
  43. H. M. Duan, A. M. Hermann, X. W. Wang, J. Hao and R. L. Snyder, “Superconducting TlBaCaCuO Thin Films with BaCaCuO Precursors”, Superconductivity and Its Applications , Vol. 4, Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 153161
    (1992).
  44. A. Bhargava, M. A. Rodriguez and R. L. Snyder, “MetalCeramic Composite Superconducting Wires,” Superconductor Engineering, T. O. Mensah, editor, American Society of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 287, v. 88, 7275 (1992).
  45. J. Hao, X. W. Wang and R. L. Snyder, “RF Plasma Aerosol Deposition of Superconductive Yba2Cu3O7-࿠Films at Atmospheric Pressure”, Proceedings of the Fourth Thermal Spray Conference, Pittsburgh, PA USA May 410, p 509512 (1991).
  46. R. L. Snyder, CES348 Xray Diffraction, Alfred University 130 p. (1991).
  47. R. L. Snyder and X. W. Wang, RF Plasma Aerosol Deposition of Superconductive YBaCuO Films at Atmospheric Pressure”, RLTR91294, Rome Laboratory, Griffiss AFB, NY, Nov. (1991).
  48. D. Boehme, M. C. Nichols, R. L. Snyder and D. P. Matheis, An Investigation of the Terich Uranium Tellurides Using Xray Powder Diffraction, Sandia National Laboratory Report  SAND908239, 40 pages (1991).
  49. R. L. Snyder, “Applied Crystallography in Advanced Ceramics”, EPDIC1 European Powder Diffraction, R. Delhez and E. J. Mittemeijer editors, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 7982, 513528 Trans Tech Publications, Zürich (1991).
  50. R. L. Snyder, “Toward a Practical High-Temperature Superconductor: Research at the Institute for Ceramic Superconductivity at Alfred University”, Superconductivity II American Ceramic Society, 607-619 (1991).
  51. S. S. Bayya, R. Kudesia and R. L. Snyder, “EXAFS Studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 Glass and Glass Ceramic”, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 3, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc. 306-314 (1990).
  52. B. J. Reardon and R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Ga2O3 and In2O3 in Forming Superconducting Glass Ceramics”, Superconductivity and Its Applications Vol. 3, Y. H.
    Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc. 599-609 (1990).
  53. D. P. Matheis, R. L. Snyder and C. R. Hubbard, “High Temperature Reactions in the Processing of Ceramic Superconductors via the Glass ceramic Method”, Superconductivity and Its Applications Vol. 3, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc., 582-588 (1990).
  54. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, and R. L. Snyder, “Glass Formation and Textured Crystallization in the Y2O3BaOCuOB2O3 and Y2O3BaOCuOP2O5 Systems”, Superconductivity and Its Applications Vol. 3, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc., 589-598 (1990).
  55. M. A. Rodriguez and R. L. Snyder, “The Effect of BaCO3 Precursor on the Formation of Phases in the BaOY2O3CuO System”, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc. 610-616 (1990).
  56. H. H. Zhong, X. W. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Deposition of Superconductive YBa2Cu3O7- Films at Atmospheric Pressure by RF Plasma Aerosol Technique”, Superconductivity and Its Applications Vol. 3, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc., 531-542 (1990).
  57. X. W. Wang, H. H. Zhong, and R. L. Snyder, “Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7- Films by RF Plasma Aerosol Evaporation at Atmospheric Pressure”, Science and Technology of Thin Film Superconductors 2, Plenum Press, New York 311317 (1990).
  58. J. J. Simmins, M. J. Hanagan, G. S. Fischman and R. L. Snyder, “Activation Energy of Decomposition of Y2BaCuO5 in Wet CO2 at Elevated Temperatures”, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol. 169, 261264 (1990).
  59. R. L. Snyder, M. C. Nichols and D. Boehme, The Crystal Structures and Powder Diffraction Patterns of the Uranium Tellurides A Critical Review, Sandia National Laboratory Report SAND908235, 92 pages (1990).
  60. P. H. McCluskey, G. S. Fischman and R. L. Snyder, “High Surface Area Chemically Synthesized Y2O3″, Proc. 2nd Conf. on Cer. Processing. Deutsche Keramische Gesellschaft, H. Hausner, G. L. Messing and S. Hirano editors, 111119 (1989).
  61. T. K. Vethanayagam, R. L. Snyder and J. A. T. Taylor, “Atmospheric Plasma Vapor Deposition of BaYCuOxide and BiSrCaCuOxide Thin Films”, Thermal Spray Technology New Ideas and Processes, D. L. Houck Ed., ASM International, Metals Park, OH, 233238 (1989).
  62. R. L. Snyder, Xray Analysis  A text, Alfred University 280 p. (1989).
  63. R. L. Snyder, INDEX  An Interactive PC System for Computer Indexing of Powder Diffraction Programs, MDI Inc., 131 p. (1988).
  64. R. L. Snyder, NBS*QUANT88  An Data Collection and Analysis System for Quantitative Phase Analysis, Siemens AG, 62 p. (1988).
  65. J. J. Simmins and R. L. Snyder, “The Effect of Silver Substitution for Copper on the Crystal Structure of YBa2Cu3O7-  Superconductor”, pages 8994, The Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Superconductivity, edited by David T. Shaw and Hoi Sing Kwok, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., July (1988).
  66. P. H. McCluskey and R. L. Snyder, “Organometallic Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7-,” The Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Superconductivity, edited by David T. Shaw and Hoi S. Kwok, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., p 100104, July (1988).
  67. A. Bhargava, A. K. Varshneya and R. L. Snyder, “Crystallization of Glasses in the System BaOY2O3CuOB2O3, p 124129, The Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Superconductivity, edited by David T. Shaw and Hoi Sing Kwok, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., July (1988).
  68. R. S. Zhou and R. L. Snyder, GRAFIT  An Interactive Program for Producing Color Plots, Alfred University, (1988).
  69. E. C. Behrman, + 48 others, “Synthesis, Characterization and Fabrication of High Temperature Superconducting Oxides”, Adv. Cer. Mat. 2 [3B], 539555 (1987).
  70. R. L. Snyder, Xray Diffraction Analysis  A text for CES358, 134 p. Alfred University, (1987).
  71. R. S. Zhou and R. L. Snyder, FILECONV  An Program to Interconvert Powder Diffraction File Formats, Alfred University, (1986).
  72. R. L. Snyder and C. R. Hubbard, NBS*QUANT84: A System for Quantitative Analysis by Automated Xray Powder Diffraction, NBS Special Publication, 101 pp. (1986).
  73. G. S. Smith, Q. C. Johnson, D. E. Cox, R. L. Snyder, D. K. Smith, A. Zalkin, Synchrotron Radiation Applied to Computer Indexing, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (UCRL94599), Oct. (1986).
  74. S. A. Howard and R. L. Snyder, “Simultaneous Crystallite Size, Strain and Structure Analysis from Xray Powder Diffraction Patterns”, Advances in Materials Characterization II, p 4356, R. L. Snyder, R. A. Condrate and P. F. Johnson, editors, Plenum Press, New York, (1985).
  75. J. P. Cline and R. L. Snyder, “Sample Characteristics Affecting Quantitative Analysis by Xray Powder Diffraction”, Advances in Materials Characterization II, p 131144, R. L. Snyder, R. A. Condrate and P. F. Johnson, editors, Plenum Press, New York, (1985).
  76. H. E. Göbel and R. L. Snyder, “Modern Trends in Xray Powder Diffraction”, Proceedings of MINTEK 50 Conference, 953959 (1984).
  77. R. L. Snyder, INTCAL An Program to Compute Accurate Lattice Parameters, Alfred University, (1984).
  78. S. A. Howard and R. L. Snyder, SHADOW  A Program for Xray Powder Diffraction Profile Analysis, New York State College of Ceramics Report, 62 pages (1984).
  79. R. L. Snyder, Diffrac 500  A System Design for Interactive Powder Diffraction Analysis, Siemens AG, (1983).
  80. R. L. Snyder , “The Renaissance of Xray Powder Diffraction”, p.449464 Advances in Materials Characterization, D. R. Rossington, R. A. Condrate, and R. L. Snyder, editors, Plenum Press, New York, (1983).
  81. R. L. Snyder, C. R. Hubbard and N. C. Panagiotopoulos, Auto: A Real Time Diffractometer Control System, National Bureau of Standards Publication NBSIR, 812229, 102 pages (1981).
  82. L. D. Calvert, J. L. FlippenAnderson, C. R. Hubbard, Q. C. Johnson, P. G. Lenhert, M. C. Nichols, W. Parrish, D. K. Smith, G. S. Smith, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Young, The Standard Form for Powder Diffraction Data, International Centre for Diffraction Data, 23 pages
    (1981).
  83. R. L. Snyder, SEARCH An Program to Automatically Carry out Phase Identification, Siemens AG, (1981).
  84. B. C. Osgood and R. L. Snyder, “POWDER A Computing System for Xray Powder Diffraction Calculations”, Accuracy in Powder Diffraction, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 567, p. 91 (1980).
  85. C. L. Mallory and R. L. Snyder, “Threshold Level Determination from Digital Xray Powder Diffraction Patterns”, Accuracy in Powder Diffraction, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 567, p. 93 (1980).
  86. L. D. Calvert, J. L. FlippenAnderson, C. R. Hubbard, Q. C. Johnson, P. G. Lenhert, M. C. Nichols, W. Parrish, D. K. Smith, G. S. Smith, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Young, “Standards for the Publication of Powder Patterns: The American Crystallographic Association Subcommittee Final Report”, Accuracy in Powder Diffraction, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 567, p. 513536 (1980).
  87. R. L. Snyder, C. L. Mallory, S. T. Smith, B. C. Osgood and S. A. Howard, The Rebirth of Xray Powder Diffraction, New York State College of Ceramics Report 17, Vol. III, No. 5, 41 pages (1979).
  88. C. L. Mallory and R. L. Snyder, The Alfred University Xray Powder Diffraction Automation System, NYS College of Ceramics Technical Publication No. 144, 172 pages (1979).
  89. R. L. Snyder, “Introduction to Automated Xray Powder Diffraction”, Workshop on Automated Xray Diffraction, ed., R. L. Snyder, Denver Xray Conference, p. 114 (1979).
  90. R. L. Snyder, editor, Workshop on Automated Xray Diffraction, Denver Xray Conference, (1979).
  91. R. L. Snyder, Chemical Properties of Materials, NYS College of Ceramics, 88 pages
    (1979).
  92. R. L. Snyder, Guidelines for the Publication of Powder Diffraction Data, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (August 1978).
  93. R. L. Snyder, Q. C. Johnson, E. Kahara, G. S. Smith and M. C. Nichols, An Analysis of the Powder Diffraction File, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (UCRL52505), 61 pages (June 1978).
  94. G. S. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Numerical Ratings of Powder Diffraction Patterns, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (UCRL80759), March (1978).
  95. R. L. Snyder, SUINDEX  An Interactive Program to Setup for Powder Pattern Indexing, Alfred University, (1977).
  96. G. S. Smith and R. L. Snyder, American Crystallographic Association Project: Numerical Ratings of Powder Diffraction Patterns, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (UCID17639), Nov. (1977).
  97. R. L. Snyder, SUPOWD An Interactive Program to Setup Powder Pattern Computations Using POWDn, Alfred University, (1976).
  98. R. L. Snyder, PREF A Program for Analyzing Preferred Orientation from Powder Diffraction Patterns, Alfred University, (1975).
  99. R. L. Snyder and W. L. Carr, “A Method of Determining the Preferred Orientation of Crystallites Normal to a Surface”, Surfaces and Interfaces of Glass and Ceramics, ed., V. D. Frechette p.8599 (1974)
  100. R. L. Snyder, Crystallographic and General Use Programs for XDS 5 Computer, Alfred University Research Foundation Report, 138 pages (1973).
  101. R. L. Snyder, “On Science and Technology”, JASEE, 63 [2], 88 (1972).
  102. R. L. Snyder, “CELDIMA Crystallographic Program for the HewlettPackard 9000B”, Keyboard 4 [1], 27 (1972).
  103. R. L. Snyder, Single Crystal Analysis Programs for the IBM 1130 Computer, University of Pittsburgh, (1969).
  104. R. L. Snyder, FLIST  A Program to Produce Publishable Structure Factor Tables, Brookhaven National Laboratory, (1968).
  105. R. L. Snyder, NANOVA Normal Analysis of Variance, Brookhaven National Laboratory, (1967).
  106. R. L. Snyder, Single Crystal Analysis Programs for the IBM 1620 Computer, Fordham University, (1966).
  107. R. L. Snyder, The Electroplating of High Phosphorus Bronze Alloys, IBM. Technical Report, (1963).

2011-20: Decade Of U.S. Economic Hell

More Bad News For America’s Worst Decade

Adapted From The Commentary By Paul B. Farrell, MarketWatch

Next decade? Toxic politics promises to make economic matters much worse than even today.

“The U.S. economy appears to be coming apart at the seams,” warned Columbia Prof. Robert Lieberman earlier this year in Foreign Affairs.

Now, over at Foreign Policy magazine, Josh Rogin warns: “This Fight Ain’t Over: Think the debt ceiling gridlock was ugly? Congress is just getting warmed up. Here are eight more foreign-policy battles right around the corner,” when they get back to sinking the economic recovery even deeper this fall.

All this was punctuated last week by the one-day 513-point market drop, S&P’s downgrade of the U.S. credit rating on Friday, as well as the 634-point drop in the stock market yesterday, Monday… and all the implications toward a double-dip recession.

Another Foreign Policy expert, James Taub, warns of what the “debt-ceiling deal tells us about the Tea Party’s grim vision of American power.”

There’s a disaster ahead, Taub writes: “All Guns, No Butter … depleting the national treasury to pay for the military … when many Americans want to reduce the role of government at home and especially abroad, the debt deal just concluded is likely to preserve the country’s hypertrophied defense budget, at least if congressional Republicans get their way.”

Mitch McConnell, the GOP’s Darth Vader, is doing just that, doubling down on his vow to make certain Obama is a one-term president, intentionally ignoring the collateral damage, killing economic recovery.

How? Ol’ Mitch is already sabotaging the new congressional debt “super-committee,” vowing to appoint only Republicans who have signed Grover Norquist’s “no new taxes” pledge.

Expect more deadlocks as economists warn that recovery is impossible without new revenues.

Beyond toxic nondemocratic pledges on taxation, America really is “coming apart at the seams.”

Both parties are to blame:

  • Dems for lack of strong leadership.
  • The GOP and the Tea Party with their bizarre Schumpeterian conviction that destroying the economy is the only way to save America and pave the way for a revival of their anarchistic, free-market Reaganomics.

Politics sabotage economy

Yes folks, our politicians really are out of control, utterly unable to manage the economy. They’re irrational, and worse, clueless and myopic in economics.

No surprise the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJI:DJIA) crashed 513 points in one day last week and by 634 points on Monday. Nor a surprise that pundits are pointing to high-tech multiples, warning of a new dot-com crash and double-dip recession, as well as a collapse in commodities, in emerging markets and endless debt problems for Europe.

The WARNING, in short, is that we’re headed into a perfect storm rivaling the disastrous political insanity of the 1930s that prolonged the depression, driving the economy into far reaching global problems that added fuel to an irrational zeitgeist and world war.

Over the past decade we predicted the 2000 crash, the 2008 meltdown and the short-lived 2009 rally, and now it seems quite clear that future historians will indeed look back on the 2011-20 decade as the “Worst Decade in American History.” Worse than the “Great Depression” of the 1930s. Totally predictable, totally denied.

Early this year we made 10 predictions of a chain of events that would reach a critical mass and consume America in a torrent of “creative destruction,” finally crippling • our too-greedy-to-fail monetary/banking system, • our capitalism for the super-rich and • our corrupt political system.

The recent debt-ceiling deal is a wild red flag, warning that it’ll be much worse for a long time.

Dead ahead…

  • a protracted new civil war between special interests and the super-rich versus the middle class and disadvantaged,
  • a wasteful internecine war that will further downgrade America as the world’s superpower, while enemies cheer loudly.
  • So buckle your seat belts folks, it will get uglier and uglier for years.

10 Annual Predictions — a year-by-year look at a decade of economic battles between the haves and have-nots

So here’s an update of my 10 annual predictions, a year-by-year look at a decade of economic battles between the haves and have-nots, with no room for compromise between the three ideologies destroying our nation from within. The “wealth gap,” the greed, the entitlements, the hostilities are now so entrenched, compromise is impossible.

Only a catastrophic 1929-style collapse of capitalism, democracy and a descent into economic hell will force America to restructure.

Here’s how it will unfold in the coming 10 years:

2011: Wall Street’s super-rich control Washington

Thanks to the conservative takeover of America’s so-called democracy over the past three decades, from Reagan to Obama, our activist Supreme Court delivered the coup de grace into America’s psyche last year, overturning long-established precedent giving rich owners of zombie corporations the same rights as live citizens. That decision would have gotten a failing grade in my constitutional-law class back at the University of Virginia.

2012: Super-rich solidify absolute power over our political system

That bizarre Supreme Court decision legalized political bribery. Now, billions pass through lobbyists to politicians with one goal: a promise that every politician vote in line with their ideology. Wealth rules. America is no longer a democracy, not even a plutocracy. Today our middle class is in a rapid trickle down into Third World status, while the rich get richer and the “gap” between the super-rich and the rest steadily widens. It is now irrelevant who wins the 2012 race, because money corrupts and Obama is already a puppet of this system favoring lobbyists and wealthy donors.

2013: Pentagon’s global commodity wars accelerate

During the Bush presidency, Fortune analyzed a classified Pentagon report predicting “climate could change radically and fast. That would be the mother of all national-security issues.” Billions of new people spread unrest worldwide as “massive droughts turn farmland into dust bowls and forests to ashes.” Most disconcerting, from the Pentagon report, “by 2020 there is little doubt that something drastic is happening … an old pattern could emerge; warfare defining human life.” Trapped in denial, political leaders will chose war over cooperation.

2014: Global population exploding, rapidly wasting resources

America’s “conspiracy of the super-rich” drains trillions from middle-class taxpayers. The invested super-rich see global population growth exploding by 100 million annually not as a drain on scarce commodities, but as tool to get richer through free-market globalization, ignoring the tragedies triggered as the population climbs to 10 billion — all demanding more of the world’s limited, nonrenewable resources. In the end, all will be demanding payback for our failures to heed warnings of environmentalists like Bill McKibben: “It might be too late. The science is settled, the damage has already begun.” We can’t save the planet.

2015: ‘Gilded Age’ explodes America’s ‘Global Empire’

Kevin Phillips warned in “Wealth and Democracy” that around the time of the Pentagon’s prediction of WWIII in 2020: “Most great nations, at the peak of their economic power, become arrogant and wage great world wars at great cost, wasting vast resources, taking on huge debt and ultimately burning themselves out.”

Similarly, financial historian Niall Ferguson, author of “Colossus: The Rise and Fall of The American Empire,” warned that we deceive ourselves, thinking “about the political process in seasonal, cyclical terms.”

2016: Reaganomics self-destructs; crashes come

“But what if history is not cyclical and slow-moving but arrhythmic?” asks Ferguson. “What if collapse does not arrive over a number of centuries but comes suddenly,” too rapid to respond in time? The new GOP president ignores the lessons of history, like Jared Diamond’s warnings in “Collapse”: “One of the disturbing facts of history is that so many civilizations share a sharp curve of decline. Indeed, a society’s demise may begin only a decade or two after it reaches its peak in population, wealth and power.”

2017. Middle-class revolution: Buffett’s ‘rich class’ loses

The seeds were planted years ago. Warren Buffett saw the revolution coming: “There’s class warfare, all right, but it’s my class, the rich class, that’s making war, and we’re winning.” After the 2016 presidential election, political rage explodes into a new civil war. The income “gap” pops a bubble, there’s economic collapse and riots spread against another bailout of our “too-greedy-to-fail” banks. New depression ignites class rebellion.

2018. The Fed and Wall Street collapse, Glass-Steagall reinstated

Diamond says he’s a “cautious optimist:” Leaders need “the courage to practice long-term thinking, make bold, courageous, anticipatory decisions at a time when problems have become perceptible but before they reach crisis proportions.” They delay, fail to act boldly. This crisis triggers a cultural revolution. History tells us most leaders act by short-term self-interest, not long-term public interests, especially politicians funded by billionaires who can’t see past quarterly earnings, year-end bonuses, the next election.

2019: Global commodity wars spread, killing millions, wasting trillions

More than half our federal budget goes to the Pentagon’s war machine, limiting America’s fiscal and monetary policies. In this context, new commodity wars are ignited by an accelerating global population against a decline in the world’s scarce resources. That also forces a total rethinking of the balance between spending to protect against external enemies and a rapid deterioration of domestic programs: employment, education, health care, retirement.

2020. America’s first woman president, patriarchal dominance ends

It is clear that patriarchy — male dominance of world culture, politics and economics throughout history — has failed, bringing the world to the brink of total destruction.

Why do male leaders fail? Jeremy Grantham’s firm GMO manages $108 billion. He predicted the 2008 meltdown and now warns: Male leaders are emotional, “impatient … management types who focus on what they are doing this quarter or this annual budget.” Leadership “requires more people with a historical perspective who are more thoughtful and more right-brained.” Yet “we end up with an army of left-brained immediate doers,” which guarantees that “every time we get an outlying, obscure event that has never happened before in history, they are always to miss it,” as in 2000, 2008, 2012, 2016 and in 2020.

In the coming post-capitalism America…

Grantham’s research suggests that women leaders will naturally emerge not just because the male brain is a short-term saboteur. The bigger reason is that women’s brains have evolved naturally as superior long-term thinkers. Brain researchers tell us 75% of men are short-term left-brain thinkers, while 75% of women tend to have strong right-brain traits as forward-thinkers, more aware of the future, the big picture, with a sense of future consequences, peacemakers rather than gamer-players.

Bottom line: These 10 predictions deserve serious consideration, so invest wisely, defensively and never listen to the happy talk from males across Wall Street, Washington or from the super-rich.

– Paul B. Farrell, MarketWatch


“Ninety7@Siglap” House in Singapore by Aamer Architects

From the architects:

Magnificent views towards the city from atop Siglap Hill inspired the design. Master and family room are placed on the third level having the best views. Living and Dining on the second level, connected with external verandahs / terraces that flow upwards and fold into the roof form with deep overhangs for sufficient shade and channeling the breeze through the whole house.

Two resort style ‘Cabana’ bedrooms are located on the ground level by the pool with a large open/covered terrace for poolside parties. A sculptural metal ‘drum’ anchors the ‘ship’ to the ground and houses the toilet/shower and barbeque pantry.

Roof gardens and timber decks provide added insulation from the sun.


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