Category Archives: science

Gas @ $3.79! It’s All Obama’s Fault!…Or Is It?

Two weeks ago I had the unfortunate displeasure of suffering cocktails with a confused businessman. He owns and manages a firm that processes payroll for a large city school district, so one might reasonably assume a certain level of intelligence and sophisticated thinking. Well, I did. Puh! Should’ve thought otherwise.

About a half hour into what had been otherwise a congenial conversation, and from nowhere, this fella spits out, “So…Obama…A fucking Communist, right!” I think my response nearly set his hair on fire.

The next thing out of his mouth is this party-line diatribe folks are attempting to foist onto the public: “My God! Obama has caused gas to skyrocket! His policies have practically shut down oil production in the US!”

Hummm? Gee I thought it was because the oil industry has chosen, under the reign of free market ideology, not to expand or build additional refining and gasoline processing facilities? ‘Cause, when I look at the numbers…they show more oil wells and more gas wells and more of practically everything geared to get product out of the ground…but no industry effort to expand processing to useable fuels for your SUVs. Gees, do you think that bottlenecks things? Maybe.

And, do ya think that maybe an industrializing China and India have increased total demand? Maybe. And do ya think that given the tensions between us and Iran (and the constant party-line drumbeat to Bomb Baby Bomb!) and the threat to the Strait of Hormuz through which most of the oil passes… that maybe the oil speculators have speculated oil futures high? Maybe.

Gees…this stuff isn’t difficult…just doesn’t fit with a mindset that thwarts all reasonable efforts to develop alternative fuels, increase our auto efficiencies, and implement effective and efficient mass transit across the nation.

No, I’m afraid it is shortsighted policies from conservatives and threats to oil transport and the pressures of speculation within a free market and industry refusal to expand gasoline refining capacity and a newly resurgent American economy that are driving gas prices higher.

Where were gasoline prices before the markets and the Bush economy crashed? Oh, yeah, about where they are now (Sept ’08 just before the crash: $3.86… March ’12 as economy grows again: $3.79). Things that make you (thoughtful people) go hummm….


Global Warming Controversy — Which Makes Sense?

LifeEdited: Less Stuff, More Happiness founder Graham Hill established a competitive project about editing one’s life for more time, freedom, and happiness. Simply it is a philosophy of the “luxury of less.”

In this world of declining expectations, stagnant incomes, strained natural resources, global warming and excess pollution, dramatically unequal income distribution… in this world… your world… our world… understanding a “luxury of less” is paramount to establishing a life of “happy.”

So, what’s the scheme? What’s a LifeEdited?

Think about editing your life’s story. What of the plot is essential? Which locations and settings are necessary? What characters are essential? Now… what could be left out? What parts of your life serve as filler?

Every choice made — the home lived in, the furniture bought, the objects on the coffee table, the relationships kept, the career chosen, the activities engaged, the media consumed… all shape your story.

So, if you want a good story, you want to live a good story with beautiful settings, an interesting plot, great characters and a good message. Good stories need good editors, a difficult effort for many if not most. Good editing gets rid of that which fails to move the story forward — including letting go of things to which we might have strong emotional attachments.

The point is: good editors know that great stories can be ruined when crowded out by unnecessary elements.

LifeEdited project launched last year because the story of humankind needs a good edit. The splendor of the story — the beauty, art, love, etc. — is crowded out by unnecessary crap — the six-car-garage McMansions, the disposable culture, the overstimulation. LifeEdited is showing a different way.

The project initiated with founder Graham Hill’s 420 square-foot New York City apartment. The point was to demonstrably show through creation… “the luxury of less” — having everything that’s needed while our lives and planet will be happier, healthier, and more beautiful using less stuff and space.

The effort was to find the best way of working these principles into the apartment through design — to launch a competition to design the space. Graham defined what was essential to him, personally: the ability to have dinner parties for 12, plenty of seating to socialize with friends, comfortable beds for self and guests, and a home office.

300 entries arrived from all over the world, with the winning design submitted by two Romanian architecture students: Catalin Sandu and Adrian Iancu. Their elegant design, entitled “One Size Fits All,” met all of Graham’s requirements and brought purpose and intention to every square foot.

Learning about this project, I recalled a line from an old movie: “Honey, good fashion and taste is about good editing. Stand with your back at the mirror. Twist around real quick. Whatever first hits your eye… take it off.”

This small apartment should serve in such a manner: to be the launch pad for an editing movement.

A better future with large-scale developments that have beautiful, compact units, communal spaces and sharing systems can make lives happier. Such spaces are extremely energy efficient and have healthy, safe air. Such developments support focusing on what’s important… prioritizing.

Such spaces create a world where people spend more time with one another, where possessions and time can be shared, not hoarded, where products are passed onto children, not trash collectors.

200 years of industrialization have brought us to a point where we can produce products, services and information at an overwhelming rate. The story of our civilization in 2012 is really a rough draft. So far, it’s a great story, whose meaning is often hidden by unimportant and unnecessary stuff.

As the project creators say, “2012 is the time to edit. We edit for the sake of the planet, for the sake of our pocketbooks, for the sake of our happiness.”

Your personal edit might be buying a smaller home, participating in a car share, or buying one less pair of jeans. The specifics are not important. Remember that everything added to your life that is not important detracts from everything that is important.

From The Designers…

one size fits all

Catalin Sandu and Adrian Iancu


Given both the small footprint of the existing apartment and the quite high number of desired functions that should be fitted inside of it, we thought the most logical solution would be to draw a line between the convertible and non-convertible areas. So for the starting point of the concept, we decided that the best configuration of the apartment would have the wet and non-convertible areas (the kitchen and the bathroom) positioned next to the eastern wall facing the building’s private courtyard, using the rest as the convertible area, a comfortably sized open space, receiving natural light from all four windows and meeting all the owner’s needs, by transforming itself.

In order to achieve this multifunctional space, we came up with a mobile modular piece of furniture that can be retracted from the apartment’s entrance wall, providing a degree of privacy that is needed for the 2 guests’s space ,and the work space(home office), and another fixed modular piece of furniture, occupying the whole length of the opposite wall, so that the main area of the apartment could be used entirely, without partitioning, as a clear, bright and generously sized open space.


The main area of the apartment is a convertible room,by using smart space saving furniture systems, combined with the mobility of the modular piece on the entrance wall.

The furniture modules fixed on the south wall of the apartment contains storage space for the 12 dining chairs , clothing  and other personal things ,an Atoll 202 sofa for the lounge area, with a wall queen size bed behind it, that can easily transform the lounge area into a bedroom, and also a built-in wall folding side sofa at the right of the sofa/wall bed that can complete the lounge area when is needed. The coffee table and the other 2 extra stools  for the lounge can also be hidden in the furniture modules behind them. Basically, that features permit this space to be used, one at the time, as a lounge area for 8 people, a dining area for 12 people, or  a simple bedroom for 2 people.

The mobile furniture module can be positioned on the entrance wall,in order to permit a bigger area for living, dining or bedroom activities, or it can be moved horizontally towards the central area, with  a system of double tracks, built on the surface of the floor and the ceiling as well. This mobile module  has two sides: on the one facing the apartment’s living area there is a  folding dinner table for 12 people built-in, with a folding system that consists of two boards with pliable metallic legs on the interior side, dining storage ,an empty rectangular space for the rotating 31” monitor(that can be also used  as a computer screen from the  office area, when the mobile module is moved) and more storage drawers.

Also there is a thinbike slot behind the folding dining table that can be accessed from the entrance area.


The other side can be accessed when the module is moved horizontally towards the center of the room, and contains  built-in retractable bunk beds for the the 2 guests, and sliding doors that can close the guest area, providing them privacy ,and also a retractable desk for the home office area, that can also be closed with sliding doors, offering visual and auditory privacy.

The living/bedroom area can be closed as well with sliding doors( positioned in the fixed south furniture wall),in order to offer  privacy/separation from  the guests, in the situation of using the bathroom.


Positioned  near the entrance, oriented to the private courtyard ,the kitchen contains a  front positioned on the entrance wall ,having an electrical oven, an induction cook top with a built-in  hood on top,with a storage space  above it, a tall storage space for drinks, an electrical  dishwasher and a fridge on top; also there is a large drawer at the lower side ,for storing shoes,  that is accessible from the entrance area.

The other  kitchen front is on the opposite side, having  a sink near the window with a trash container and  a compost machine under it, storage drawers, and  a tool cabinet that is accessible from the living area.

The kitchen area is also separated from the living area by a small breakfast bar for two people,.Between the kitchen and the bathroom there is a stridia slot, and a few shelves above it, orientated to the main living space.

Also oriented to the private courtyard, is the bathroom, which contains  a space for the washbasin with storage space under it ,a cabin for shower and sauna near the window, and a separated room for the toilet, so that the shower/sauna and the water-closet can be used separately at the same time.The bathroom is entered  by a sliding frosted glass door that allows the natural light to enter the main living area.

Steve Jobs — (Also) Visionary in Design & Architecture

A few days ago one of the most influential figures in computing, product design, and — in many ways — architecture, died.

In the 70’s and 80’s, Steve Jobs helped to change the course of personal computing as the co-founder of Apple, bringing technology to the masses through design simplification. A 1981 ad from the Wall Street Journal makes the case clear, “Putting real computer power in the hands of the individual is already improving the way people work, think, learn and communicate and spend their leisure hours.”

Thirty years later over a hundred million people around the world learned about his death via notification on their iPhones and iPads. None of these devices are traditionally define as “computers;” none of these devises are wired to what’s call a “local network.”

As for product design, the “i” factor is well known worldwide and has been recognized by design masters such as Dieter Rams. In this field, Steven Paul Jobs’ legacy will last for a hundred years.

“In most people’s vocabularies, design means veneer. It’s interior decorating. It’s the fabric of the curtains, of the sofa. But to me, nothing could be further from the meaning of design. Design is the fundamental soul of a human-made creation that ends up expressing itself in successive outer layers of the product or service. When you’re a carpenter making a beautiful chest of drawers, you’re not going to use a piece of plywood on the back, even though it faces the wall and nobody will ever see it. You’ll know it’s there, so you’re going to use a beautiful piece of wood on the back. For you to sleep well at night, the aesthetic, the quality, has to be carried all the way through.” — Steve Jobs

Further exploring the world of design, Steve Jobs was a patron of architecture. Jobs worked with Bohlin Cywinski Jackson, one of the most renowned US architecture firms, to develop state-of-the-art retail stores around the world. In these iconic projects, glass — one of the most essential materials in architecture — moved to the next level of design, technology,and functionality. And here, Jobs was essential for Corning to develop “Gorilla Glass” that Apple applied vigorously to their most daring store designs such as the glass box store in Fifth Avenue, NYC and the glass cylinder store in Shanghai, China.

It is believe that these sheets of glass comprising Apple’s stores are the largest used in architecture, to be exceeded only by the new and huge curved glass walls of the upcoming new Apple World Headquarters designed by Sir Norman Foster and Steve Jobs.


Apple’s original Fifth-Avenue glass store in NYC broke all retail architectural design traditions to invoke the heart of design simplicity, and in the process became a hot tourist destination, as well.

Apple’s New 2011 Revised Fifth-Avenue Cube Uses Just 15 Giant Sheets of Glass — Apple, famous for pushing materials to their limits in order to make ridiculously thin and strong gadgets, is doing the same for its flagship Fifth Avenue store in New York City. A remodel of the already perfectly good design will see the amount of glass panels of the iconic cube reduced from 90 panes to just 15. It seems that Apple’s minimalism knows no bounds.

Glass cylinder store in Shanghai, China — In July 2010, Apple opened its first retail store in China… Shanghai. The bound again made unbound, as Jobs worked with architects and glass manufacturers to created the glass-cylinder store.

The round glass store entrance tower, surrounded by two large skyscrapers and a substantial circular wall of concrete, includes a spiral glass staircase leading to an underground retail space – just like New York’s.

In both cases, the New York and the Shanghai designs represent a return to elementary geometry – simple basic forms, utilizing the transparency of glass to allow light into hard to reach spaces, just as Apple products brought illumination of user-friendly, simply-designed technology to the masses.

Other Notable Apple Store Designs:

Carrousel du Louvre

Hong Kong IFC

Ginza Tokyo

Third Street Promenade in Santa Monica (glass-roofed Apple retail store)


As in architecture where Steve Jobs’ influence has produced many breakthroughs related to manufacturing, most of Apple’s product design innovations relate to manufacturing, as seen on the Macbook Unibody aluminum design and for which every one of the world’s existing, highly technical laser cutting manufacturing machines for the unibody is devoted exclusively to Apple product manufacturing.

“Stay hungry. Stay foolish” — Steve Jobs

And the new Apple Campus in Cupertino, commissioned to Foster + Partners, is what culminates all the discussion points above into one ground-shaking building with new sustainable technologies and resource utilization. Curved glass, a new way to conceive office space planning, low impact on the existing site while providing more green areas, integrated design and a state of the art sustainable strategy… all will be Steve Jobs’ legacy for architecture when doors open in 2015.

“It’s a circle, and so it’s curved all the way around. As you know if you build things, this is not the cheapest way to build something. There’s not a straight piece of glass on this building, it’s all curved. And we’ve used our experience in making retail buildings all over the world now, and we know how to make the biggest pieces of glass in the world for architectural use.” — Steve Jobs


Apple Inc. New World Headquarters – Designed By Lord Norman Foster & Steve Jobs


Lord Norman Foster issued a tribute to Steve Jobs (1955-2011), who passed away yesterday at the age of 56. Foster + Partners is working on the new Apple Campus in Cupertino, scheduled to be completed in 2015.

With my colleagues I would like to pay tribute to Steve Jobs. Like so many millions our lives have been profoundly and positively influenced by the innovations pioneered by Steve and Apple, names which are inseparable.

We were greatly privileged to know Steve as a person, as a friend and in every way so much more than a client. Steve was an inspiration and a role model. He encouraged us to develop new ways of looking at design to reflect his unique ability to weave backwards and forwards between grand strategy and the minutiae of the tiniest of internal fittings. For him no detail was small in its significance and he would be simultaneously questioning the headlines of our project together whilst he delved into its fine print.

He was the ultimate perfectionist and demanded of himself as he demanded of others. We are better as individuals and certainly wiser as architects through the experience of the last two years and more of working for him. His participation was so intense and creative that our memory will be that of working with one of the truly great designers and mentors.

– Norman Foster Architect Chairman + Founder of Foster + Partners

Renowned Scientist, Robert L. Snyder, Passed Away Sept. 1st — Forever Altered The Scientific & Material Course of History Through Nanotechnology

Robert L. Snyder

Co-Chair and Professor – School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology

School Chair and Professor – College of Engineering, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Georgia Institute of Technology

  • B.A. Chemistry, Mathematics, and Philosophy, 1963, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
  • Ph.D. Physical Chemistry, X-ray Crystallography, 1968, Fordham University, Bronx, N.Y.

The World Will Be Forever Altered Due to Snyder’s Research & Success

Research Areas:

  • Synthesis, structural and property characterization of nano and bio-enabled materials

Snyder was most recently known for his stance, presentations, writings and advocacy called: “The New World Of Materials Science & Engineering: Nano/Bio Technology.” The two most important events in materials science and engineering in the past 50 years have been the introduction of surface free energy as a tool for creating new materials and the cracking of the genetic code of the entire biosphere. These two events are intertwined at the most fundamental level in that the key to the assembly of complex nanomachines lies within each of our cells. In his world-wide presentations, Dr. Snyder revealed why it is now time to turn this marvelous machine loose to manufacture materials and machines that have nothing to do with evolution.

While still maintaining an active interest in materials characterization using X-rays, Snyder’s active systems of latest study centered upon bio-inspired approaches to manufacturing and synthesis; nano-materials and the effect of surface free energy on materials properties in magnetic, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, semiconducting, superconducting, optoelectronic and phononic materials.

Examples of current research involve approaches to the fabrication of barium hexaferrite nano-structures, characterization of the kinetics and dynamics of incongruent reduction reactions to produce useful nanomachines, analysis of the defect types and densities in nano-devices.


— Snyder also contributed to the development of energy generated from biomass for both vehicle fuel and power generation that is becoming a major technology focus for the nation. Snyder’s chairmanship oversaw biomass research programs at Georgia Tech that are making significant strides in developing technologies, such as the cellulosic ethanol from soft woods, rapid screening processes for liquid biofuels, and defining new methods for generating energy from alternative biomass combustion processes.

Built Under Snyder as Chair: Biotechnology Complex - Molecular Science & Engineering Buildings - Georgia Institute of Technology

Moreover, greater than one hundred computer programs for the treatment, processing, and analysis of X-ray crystallographic data have been authored by Dr. Snyder.  These programs written principally in FORTRAN are in use in laboratories around the world on all of the major computers.


It is my privilege to have known and been friends with this brilliant person of the highest calibre. I will miss you, my friend.



  • Distinguished Fellow, International Centre of Diffraction Data
  • Fellow, American Ceramic Society
  • Fellow, American Society of Metals
  • Chairman of Board  of Directors, International Centre of Diffraction Data, 1997-2000
  • Principal Editor, Journal Materials Research
  • Assoc. Editor, JAmCerSoc & Powder Diffraction
  • Hanawalt Award in X-ray Analysis 2004
  • TMS Leadership Award 2002
  • American Ceramic Society Outstanding Educator 1999

Dr. Robert L. Snyder served as a Professor and as Chair of the School of Materials Science and Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology… as well as Professor and Chair of the College of Engineering, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology at the Georgia Institute of Technology

Snyder earned Bachelors Degrees in Chemistry, Mathematics, and Philosophy from Marist College and his Ph.D. for Chemistry, X-ray Crystallography from Fordham University. He entered the field of materials through his Ph.D. research and continued it as a postdoc at the University of Pittsburgh and NASA. Dr. Snyder began teaching at the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University in 1970 and rose through the academic ranks to Professor of Ceramic Science in 1982. He chaired the MSE Department at Ohio State from 1996 through 2002.

Built Under Snyder As Chair: Marcus Nanotechnology Research Center

He enjoyed extended leaves at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (1977), National Bureau of Standards (1980, 1981), Sandia National Lab (1987), Siemens Central Research Labs Munich (1983, 1991) and the Université de Rennes (1995).

Dr. Snyder was a Fellow of the American Ceramic Society, the American Society of Metals and a Distinguished Fellow of the International Center for Diffraction Data where he served in a number of capacities, most recently as Chairman of the Board of Directors.

He was a Principal Editor for the Journal Materials Research and the Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Dr. Snyder served on the organizing committees of a number of international conferences and Chaired the annual Denver X-ray Conference. He was named the American Ceramic Society Outstanding Educator and received the State University of New York Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching and the 2002 TMS Award for Materials Leadership as well as the 2008 TMS Educator Award.

He was the author of two textbooks, edited nine technical books and contributed chapters to nine books and encyclopedias. He held eight patents and has published over 265 papers on materials and materials characterization which have been cited by other authors more than 2000 times. Dr. Snyder presented over 1,000 talks around the world with over forty plenary and keynote lectures.

Bob and his wife, Sheila, earlier this year in Santorini


  1. K. H. Sandhage and R. L. Snyder, “Electrolysis Apparatus and Methods using Urania in Electrodes, and Methods of Producing Reduced Substances from Oxidized Substances, Including the Electrowinning of Aluminum” U.S. Patent 6,616,826 (2005).
  2. K. H. Sandhage and R. L. Snyder, “Electrodes, electrolysis apparatus and methods using uranium-bearing ceramic electrodes, and methods of producing a metal from a metal compound dissolved in a molten salt, including the electrowinning of aluminum”, U.S. Patent 6,146,513 (2003).
  3. S. S. Bayya, R. L. Snyder, S. Gopalakrishnan and W. A. Schulze, “Process for Preparing a Thallium-Containing Superconductor,” U.S. Patent 5,385,882 awarded Jan 31 (1995).
  4. R. L. Snyder, J. J. Simmins and X. W. Wang “Process for Preparing Ferrite Films by Radio-Frequency Generated Aerosol Plasma Deposition in Atmosphere,” U.S. Patent
    5,213,851 awarded May 15 (1993).
  5. R. L. Snyder, X. W. Wang and H. Hsong, “Process for Preparing Superconducting Films by Radio-Frequency“, U.S. Patent 5,157,015 awarded Oct. 20 (1992).
  6. R. L. Snyder, X. W. Wang, H. M. Duan and A. Hermann, “Preparation of Thallium Superconducting Films Using an Atmospheric Plasma Vapor Deposition Process“, U.S. Patent 5,100,868 awarded March 31 (1992).
  7. R. L. Snyder, X. W. Wang and H. Hsong, “Atmospheric Plasma Vapor Deposition of Superconducting Thin Films“, U.S. Patent 5,120,703 awarded June 9, (1992).
  8. A. Bhargava, A. K. Varshneya and R. L. Snyder, “Superconducting Glass-Ceramics made by controlled crystallization from glass“, U.S. Patent 4,970,195 awarded Nov. 13, (1990).
  9. A. Bhargava and R. L. Snyder, “Process for preparing a barium-titanate film“, U.S. Patent 4,959,089 awarded Sept. 25 (1990).

Books and Chapters

  1. T. Blanton, G. Havrilla, T. C. Huang, J. A. Anzelmo, Victor E. Burke, W. T. Elam, I. C. Noyan, J. Kaduk, B. Toby and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 52 ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2009).
  2. T. C. Huang, J. A. Anzelmo, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 51 ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2008).
  3. T. C. Huang, J. A. Anzelmo, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, J. A. Kaduk, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 50 ICDD Newtown Square PA,  (2007).
  4. K. H. Sandhage, S. M. Allan, M. B. Dickerson, E. M. Ernst, C. S. Gaddis, S. Shian, M. R. Weatherspoon, G. Ahmad, Y. Cai, M. S. Haluska, R. L. Snyder, R. R. Unocic, and F. M. Zalar, “Inorganic Preforms of Biological Origin: Shape-Preserving Reactive Conversion of Biosilica Microshells (Diatoms),” pp235-253, in Handbook of Biomineralization, Eds. E. Bauerlein, P. Behrens, Vol. 2, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany (2007).
  5. T. C. Huang, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, J. A. Kaduk, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 49 ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2006).
  6. T. C. Huang, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, J. A. Kaduk, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 48, ICDD Newtown Square PA,  (2005).
  7. T. C. Huang, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 46, ICDD Newtown Square PA,  (2004).
  8. T. C. Huang, Randolph Barton Jr., Ron Broton, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, Ron Jenkins, I. C. Noyan, and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 45, ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2003).
  9. T. C. Huang, Randolph Barton Jr., Ron Broton, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, Ron Jenkins, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 44, ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2002).
  10. T. C. Huang, Randolph Barton Jr., Ron Broton, Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, Ron Jenkins, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki, D. K. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 43, ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2001).
  11. S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “X-ray Analysis,” chapter in Encyclopedia of Materials Science and Engineering, R. W. Cahn and E. Lifshin, ed., Pergamon Press New York (2001).
  12. T. C. Huang, Randolph Barton Jr., Victor E. Burke, J. V. Gilfrich, George J. Havrilla, Ron Jenkins, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki, D. K. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 42, ICDD Newtown Square PA, (2000).
  13. J. V. Gilfrich, T. C. Huang, C. R. Hubbard, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki, D. K. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 41, Plenum, (1999).
  14. R. L. Snyder, J. Fiala and H. J. Bunge, Defect and Microstructure Analysis by Diffraction, Oxford University Press, Oxford 785 pp. (1999).
  15. Fiala, J. and Snyder, R. L. “Introduction to Defect and Microstructure Analysis or the Analysis of Real Structure” in Defect and Microstructure Analysis by Diffraction,  1-15, (1999).
  16. J. V. Gilfrich, T. C. Huang, C. R. Hubbard, I. C. Noyan, P. K. Predecki, D. K. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 40, Plenum, (1998).
  17. R. L. Snyder, “X-Ray Diffraction,” X-ray Characterization of Materials, Eric Lifshin, editor.  Wiley-VCH Verlag SmbH, Weinheim, FRG. Chap. 1 p 1-103 (1999).
  18. J. V. Gilfrich, R. Jenkins, R. L. Snyder, M. A. Zaitz, I. C. Noyan, T. C. Huang, D. K. Smith and P. K. Predecki, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Vol 39, Plenum, (1997).
  19. C. Park and R. L. Snyder “Structure of Ceramics,” chapter in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim, Germany, Vol. 10, (1996).
  20. R. Jenkins and R. L. Snyder, Introduction to X-ray Powder Diffractometry, John Wiley and Sons, New York 544 pp. (1996).
  21. R. L. Snyder, “Analytical Profile Modeling in Diffraction”, Chapter 7, 111-131 The Rietveld Method, Oxford University Press (1993).
  22. R. L. Snyder, “XRay Analysis”, Materials Science and Technology – a Comprehensive Treatment, R. W. Cahn, P. Haasen and E. J. Kramer editors. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim, FRG, Vol 2, Chap. 4, p. 251-355 (1992).
  23. R. L. Snyder and D. Bish, “Quantitative Analysis by Xray Powder Diffraction”, Chapter 5 of Modern Powder Diffraction, D. L. Bish and J. E. Post eds. Reviews in Mineralogy Vol 20, 101145, Mineralogical Society of America, Washington D.C. (1989).
  24. R. L. Snyder, Chapters 4 and 5 of “Xray Powder Diffraction”, ACS Audio Visual Course, R. Jenkins, editor, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1989).
  25. R. L. Snyder, R. A. Condrate and P. F. Johnson, editors, Advances in Material Characterization II, Plenum Press, New York (1985).
  26. D. R. Rossington, R. A. Condrate, and R. L. Snyder, editors, Advances in Material Characterization, Plenum Press, New York (1983).

Refereed Papers

  1. Yue Shen, Jung-Il Hong, Sheng Xu, Hao Fang, Su Zhang, Yong Ding, Robert L. Snyder, and Zhong Lin Wang, “Fabrication of Arc-Shape Composite Nanowire Arrays by Pulsed Laser Deposition” Small (Submitted) (2009).
  2. S. Salman, O. Gunduz, S. Yilmaz, M.L. Öveçoğlu, Robert L. Snyder, S. Agathopoulos and F.N. Oktar, “Sintering effect on mechanical properties of composites of natural hydroxyapatites and titanium”, Ceramics International 35, 2965–2971 (2009)
  3. S. S. Lin, J-I. Hong, J. H. Song, Y. Zhu, H. P. He, Z. Xu, Y. G. Wei,Y. Ding, R. L. Snyder, Z. Z. Ye and Z. L. Wang, “Zn1-xMgxO Nanowire Arrays With Controllable Structure and Conductivity Type” Nanoletters (Submitted) (2009)
  4. N. Fukata, K. Sato, M. Mitome,Y. Bando, J. Chen, T. Sekiguchi, M. Kirkham, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Doping of boron and phosphorus atoms in germanium nanowires” Advanced Materials (submitted) (2009).
  5. Joonho Bae, Jung-Il Hong, Won Hee Han, Young Jin Choi, Robert.L. Snyder, “Superior Field Emission Properties of ZnO Nanocones Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition”, Chemical Physics Letters 476, 260-263 (2009)
  6. Jenny Ruth Morber, Xudong Wang, Jin Liu, Robert L. Snyder and Zhong Lin Wang, “Wafer-Level Patterned and Aligned Polymer-Nanowire/Nanotube-Arrays on any Substrate”, Adv. Mat 21, 1-5 (2009)
  7. Xu, Sheng; Wei, Yaguang; Kirkham, Melanie; Liu, Jin; Mai, Wenjie; Davidovic, Dragomir; Snyder, R.L.; Wang, Zhong Lin, “Patterned Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanowire Arrays on Inorganic Substrates at Low Temperature without Catalyst” J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 130 14958 (2008).
  8. Hong, Jung-Il, Zhong, Joonho Bae, Wang, Zhong Lin and Snyder, Robert L., “Room-temperature texture-controlled growth of ZnO thin films on general substrates and their application for growing aligned ZnO nanowire arrays” Nanotechnology, 20, 85609-85614 (2009).
  9. Melanie Kirkham, Zhong Lin Wang and Robert L. Snyder, “In-Situ Growth Kinetics of ZnO Nanowires”, Nanotechnology accepted  (2008).
  10. Daniel Moore, Jenny Ruth Morber, Robert L. Snyder, and Zhong Lin Wang, “Growth of Ultralong ZnS/SiO2 Core-Shell Nanowires by Volume and Surface Diffusion VLS process” , J. Phys. Chem C, February (2008).
  11. Kirkham, Melanie, Wang, Xudong, Wang, Zhong Lin and Snyder, Robert L., “Solid Au Nanoparticles as a Catalyst for Growing Aligned ZnO Nanowires: A New Understanding of the Vapour-Liquid-Solid Process” Nanotechnology 18(36), 365304 (2007).
  12. Rusen Yang, Yu-Lun Chueh, Jenny Ruth Morber,  Robert Snyder, Li-Jen Chou, Zhong Lin Wang, “Single-crystalline Branched Zinc Phosphide Nanostructures: Synthesis, Properties and Opotoelectronic Devices”, Nano Letters, 7(2), 269-275 (2007).
  13. E. Koep, C. Jin, M. Haluska, R. Das, R. Narayan, K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, M. Liu, “Microstructure and Electrochemical Properties of Cathode Materials for SOFCs Prepared via Pulsed Laser Deposition,” J. Power Sources, 161 [1] 250-255 (2006).
  14. Yong Ding, Jenny Ruth Morber, Robert L. Snyder, Zhong Lin Wang “Nanowire structural evolution from Fe3O4 to e-Fe2O3”, Adv. Func. Materials, 17, 1172-1178 (2007).
  15. Eric M. Ernst, Ben C. Church, Christopher S. Gaddis, Robert L. Snyder and Kenneth H. Sandhage, “Enhanced Hydrothermal Conversion of Surfactant-modified Diatom Microshells into Barium Titanate Replicas”, J. Mat. Res 22(5) 1121-1127 (2007).
  16. Jenny Ruth Morber, Yong Ding, Michael Stephan Haluska, Yang Li , J. Ping Liu, Zhong Lin Wang and Robert L. Snyder, “PLD Assisted VLS Growth of Aligned Ferrite Nanorods, Nanowires, and Nanobelts – Synthesis and Properties”, J. Phys. Chem. B,  110 (43), 21672-21679, (2006).
  17. I. Dragomir-Cernatescu, M. S. Haluska, K. H. Sandhage and R. L. Snyder “Residual Stress in 3-D MgO Diatom Replicas Synthesized by Low-Temperature Gas/Solid Displacement Reaction” submitted to Journal Materials Research (2005).
  18. Luo Qian, Dragomir-Cernatescu Iuliana, Hess Dennis W., Rees Will S. Jr. and Snyder Robert L. “Comparison of nitride HfO2 films deposited in O2 and N2O by direct liquid injection CVD” submitted to J. Electrochem. Soc. 53, F1 (2006)..
  19. M. S. Haluska, I. Dragomir-Cernatescu, K.  H.  Sandhage, and R.  L.  Snyder, “X-ray Diffraction Analyses of 3-D MgO-based Replicas of Diatom Microshells Synthesized by a Low-Temperature Gas/Solid Displacement Reaction” Powder Diffraction December 20(4) 306-310 (2005).
  20. K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, G. Ahmad, S. M. Allan, Y. Cai, M. B. Dickerson, C. S. Gaddis, M. S. Haluska, S. Shian, M. R. Weatherspoon, R. A. Rapp, R. R. Unocic, F. M. Zalar, Y. Zhang, M. Hildebrand, B. P. Palenik, “Merging Biological Self-assembly with Synthetic Chemical Tailoring: The Potential for 3-D Genetically-Engineered Micro/nanodevices (3-D GEMS),”Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 2 [4] 317-326 (2005).
  21. Oh, R., Dragomir-Cernatescu, I., Cochran, J., Snyder, R. L. “Residual Stress Analysis of A Co-Extruded Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Platform” submitted to J. Fuel Cells (2005).
  22. I. C. Dragomir, D. S. Li, G. A. Castello-Branco, H. Garmestani, R. L. Snyder, G. Ribarik, and T. Ungar, “Evolution of dislocation density and character in hot rolled titanium determined by X-ray diffraction”, J. Materials Char. 55, 66-74 (2005)
  23. Weatherspoon M.R., Haluska M.S., Cai Y., Summers J.S., Christopher J., Snyder R.L., Sandhage K.H., “Phosphor Microparticles of Controlled Three-Dimensional Shape from Phytoplankton,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 153 [2] H34-H37, (2006).
  24. I. C. Dragomir, G. A. Castello-Branco, G. Ribarik, H. Garmestani, T. Ungar and R. L. Snyder, “Burgers vector populations in hot rolled titanium determined by X-ray Peak Profile Analysis”, Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 23, 99-104 (2006)
  25. Haluska M.S., Misture S.T., Snyder R.L., Sandhage K.H., “A closed, heated reaction chamber design for dynamic high-temperature x-ray diffraction analyses of gas/solid displacement reactions,” Rev. Sci. Instr. 76 [12], 126101/1-126101/4 (2005).
  26. I. C. Dragomir , N. Thadhani, M. Gheorghe and R. L. Snyder, “X-ray Peak Profile Analysis of Crystallite Size Distributions, Dislocations Type and Density evolution in Nano-structured Cu obtained by deformation at liquid nitrogen temperature”, J. Mat Sci & Eng A, 402[1-2] 158-162 (2005).
  27. I. C. Dragomir , M. Gheorghe, N. Thadhani and R. L. Snyder, “Dislocation densities and character evolution in copper deformed by rolling under liquid nitrogen from X-ray peak profile analysis”, Powder Diffraction 20, 109-111 (2005)
  28. J.L. Reeves, V. Selvamanickam and R.L. Snyder “Reel-To-Reel Texture Analysis of HTS Coated Conductors Using a Modified GADDS System” Adv. X-ray Anal. (2003).
  29. M. B. Dickerson, K. Pathak, K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, U. Balachandran, B. Ma, R.D. Blaugher and R.N. Bhattacharya, “Applications of 2D Detectors in X-Ray Analysis,” Adv
    X-ray Anal. 45, 338 (2003).
  30. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder and K. H. Sandhage, “Dense, Near Net-Shaped, Carbon/Refractory Metal Composites at Modest Temperatures by the Displacive Compensation of Porosity (DCP) Method,” J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 85[3] 730-32 (2002)
  31. D. Sriram, R. L. Snyder and V. R. W. Amarakoon, “Anisotropic Thermal Expansion of Barium Hexaferrite Using Dynamic High Temperature X-ray Diffraction,” J. Mater. Res. 15 [6] 1349-1353 (2000).
  32. K. E. Kuehn, D. Sriram, S. S. Bayya, J. J. Simmins and R. L. Snyder, “Synthesis of Copper and Lithium Copper Ferrites as High Magnetization Materials,” J. Mater. Res. 15[7] 1635-1641 (2000).
  33. R. J. Castilone, D. Sriram, W. M. Carty and R. L. Snyder, “Crystallization of Zircon in Stoneware Glazes,” J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 82 2819-24 (1999).
  34. C. Park, D. H. Lee, R. A. Condrate and R. L. Snyder, “Surface Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectral Study of the Effect of Silver and Carbon in Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O7-,” J. Mater. Sci. 33(8) 2187-93 (1998).
  35. S. T. Misture, D. P. Matheis, R. L. Snyder, T. N. Blanton, G. M. Zorn and B. Seebacher, “Peritectic Melting Sequence of Bi-2212 and Bi-2212/Ag Measured Using in-situ XRD,”
    Adv. X-ray Anal. 39 723-729 (1997).
  36. M. Haller and R. L. Snyder, “The Structural Conditions for High Temperature Superconductivity,” JOM 49[10] 12-17 (1997).
  37. D. Sriram, T. T. Eagen, D. Cox and R. L. Snyder, “Site Occupancy in Rapidly Quenched Copper Ferrite, Cu0.5Fe2.5O4 Using Synchrotron Radiation,” Magnetic Materials (1998).
  38. C. Park, W. Wong-Ng, L. P. Cook, R. L. Snyder, P. V. Sastry and A. R. West, “Melting Investigations of Bi2Sr1.9Ca2.1Cu3O10+ by High Temperature X-ray Diffraction and Quenching,” Physica C. 304(3&4) 265-276 (1998).
  39. W. Wong-Ng, R. L. Snyder, C. Park, E. Antipov, and F. McClune, “The ICDD/PDF Superconductor MiniFile (SC),” Powder Diffraction 12(1) 13-15 (1997).
  40. L. M. Fisher, A. V. Kalinov, J. Mirkovic, I. F. Voloshin, A. V. Bondarenko, M. A. Obolenskii, and R. L. Snyder, “Critical Current Anisotropy and Fishtail in YBCO Single Crystal: Twin Boundary Effects,” Phys. Rev. Let. (1997).
  41. J. G. Fagan, R. L. Snyder, C. Hach, L. Jones, J. B. Ings, J. May, J. J. Simmins, “Aspects of Sintering Barium Hexaferrite with SiO2, Al2O3, CaCO3, and Y6Fe10O24 Additions for Microwave Applications,” J. Appl. Phy. 79: (8) 6341-6341 (1996).
  42. C. Park and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystal Structures of the High Temperature Cuprate Superconductors”, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. feature article 78  3171-94 (1995).
  43. P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski, R. Brückner, “Characterization of the Sn Diffusion Layer in the Surface of Float Glass using Grazing Incidence XRay Reflectometry and Fluorescence,” Glastech. Ber. Glass Sci Technol. 68 C1 314 (1995).
  44. C. Park, S. T. Misture, D. Sriram and R. L. Snyder. “Effect of Ag on Processing & Properties of Bi& Tlbased HTSC Materials,” J. Electronic Materials 24[12] 1897-902 (1995).
  45. S. T. Misture, D. P. Matheis, R. L. Snyder, T. N. Blanton, G. M. Zorn, and B. Seebacher, HighTemperature XRD Study of the Peritectic Reactions of Bi2212 With and Without Ag  Additions,” Physica C 250 175-183 (1995).
  46. S. T. Misture, C. Park, R. L. Snyder, B. Jobst, and B. Seebacher, “Powder Diffraction Data for Several Solid Solutions with the Compositions (Sr,Ca)CuO2 and (Sr,Ca)2CuO3,” Powder Diffraction 10  296-299 (1995).
  47. R. L. Snyder and B. J. Chen, “Dynamic Characterization in Advanced Manufacturing,”
    Adv. Xray Anal. 38 1-8 (1995).
  48. P. J. LaPuma, R. L. Snyder, S. Zdzieszynski and R. Brückner, “Xray Surface Characterization of Float Glass,” Adv. Xray Anal.. 38 705-709 (1995).
  49. C. Park and R. L. Snyder, “Perovskite Stacking in the Structures of the High Temperature Cuprate Superconductors,” Applied Superconductivity 3 73-84 (1995).
  50. J. G. Fagan, K. D. Vuong, D. T. Hoelzer, X. W. Wang, C. Q. Shen, V. W. R. Amarakoon and R. L. Snyder, “Examination of Y2Cu2O5 Additions on Microstructural Development in YBa2Cu3O7- Superconductors,” Applied Superconductivity 3 91103 (1995).
  51. J. G. Fagan, K. D. Vuong, D. Partis, J. A. A. Williams, T. Leone, V. W. R. Amarakoon, C. Q. Shen, X. W. Wang, B. J. Chen, and R. L. Snyder, “Influence of Excess Yttrium Additions in the YBa2Cu3O7- System During Melt Processing, “Applied Superconductivity 3 123131 (1995).
  52. J. G. Fagan, A. Barus, C. Q. Shen, K. D. Vuong, X. W. Wang, B. J. Chen, R. L. Snyder and V. W. R. Amarakoon, “Comparative Evaluation of MeltTexturing Methods to Produce High Jc YBa2Cu3O7-,” Applied Superconductivity (1995).
  53. L. M. Fisher, J. Mirkovic, I. F. Voloshin, N. M. Makarov, V. A. Yampol’skii, F. Perez Rodriguez and R. L. Snyder, “Frequency Limitations on the Applicability of the Critical State Model”, Applied Superconductivity 2 685-687 (1994).
  54. L. M. Fisher, A. V. Kalinov, J. Mirkovic. I. F. Voloshin, S. A. Zver’kov, A. Bondarenko, M. Obolenskii, V. A. Yampolskii, and R. L. Snyder, “Anisotropy of AC Magnetic Susceptibility and Jc in YBCO Bulk Textured Samples and Single Crystals,” Applied Superconductivity 2 639-43 (1994).
  55. C. Q. Shen, K. D. Vuong, J. A. A. Williams, A. Leone, R. L. Snyder, X. W. Wang, M. DeMarco, J. Stuckey, D. Petrov and M. J. Naughton, “Plasma Fabrication of BiSrCaCuO Superconductive Films and Nonsuperconductive NiFeO for hybrid Devices,” Applied Superconductivity 3 67-72  (1995).
  56. S. T. Misture, B. Seebacher and R. L. Snyder “Fabrication of BPSCCO-2223 Ag-Sheathed Conductors by Tape Casting”, Applied Superconductivity 3 113-116 (1995).
  57. C. Park, S. S. Bayya, D. Sriram and R. L. Snyder, “Effects of Silver Addition in the Single Layer Tl Superconductor”, Applied Superconductivity 3 139-146 (1995).
  58. M. A. Rodriguez, R. L. Snyder, J. J. Simmins, Y. M. Guo, R. A. Condrate, F. Rotella and J. Jorgensen, “The Crystal Structure of the YBa4Cu2CO3O5.5+ Oxycarbonate”,  J. Appl Cryst. 28 429-435 (1995).
  59. R. L. Snyder, “Manufacturing Advanced Materials,” Advanced Materials & Processes 894, 20-25 (1994).
  60. R. Kudesia, A. E. McHale and R. L. Snyder, “Effects of La2O3/ZnO Additives on Microstructure and Microwave Dielectric Properties of Zr0.8Sn0.2TiO4 Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77[12] 321520 (1994).
  61. C. Park, S. S. Bayya, S. Dattaguru and R. L. Snyder, “Effect of Silver Addition to the Singlelayer Tl Superconductors,” Physica C 235-240 543-544(1994).
  62. S. T. Misture, B. Seebacher, R. Hornung, G. M. Zorn and R. L. Snyder, “Tape Casting and Screen Printing Fabrication of BPSCCO2223 AgSheathed Conductors,” Physica C 235 -240 3397-3398 (1994).
  63. S. T. Misture, L. Chatfield and R. L. Snyder, “Accurate Powder Diffraction Patterns Using Zero Background Holders,” Powder Diffraction 9 172-179 (1994).
  64. D. P. Matheis and R. L. Snyder, “Analysis of the Modulated Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 from Xray Powder Diffraction Data,” Powder Diffraction 9 28-37 (1994).
  65. S. S. Bayya, and R. L. Snyder, “SelfPropagating HighTemperature Synthesis (SHS) and Microwave Assisted Combustion Synthesis (MACS) of the Thallium Superconducting Phases,” Physica C. 83-90 (1994).
  66. D. P. Matheis, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “MeltTexture Processing and High Temperature Reactions of Bi2212 Thick Films,” Physica C. 217 319-324 (1993).
  67. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “Effect of Undercooling Temperature on the Solidification Kinetics and Morphology of YBCO During Melt
    Texturing,” Physica C 217 367-375 (1993).
  68. C. Park and R. L. Snyder, “XRay Powder Diffraction Data for the Superconducting Phase Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O6.5+,” Powder Diffraction 8 249-50 (1993).
  69. S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “Synthesis of Thallium Superconducting Phases via Melt Quenching,” Physica C 214 25-36 (1993).
  70. S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “Growth of Anisotropic Shaped Superconducting Particles in the TlBaCaCuO System, Physica C 208 69-78 (1993).
  71. R. Kudesia, A. E. McHale, R. A. Condrate, and R. L. Snyder, “Microwave Characteristics and Far IR Reflection Spectra of Zirconium Tin Titanate Dielectrics,” J. of  Materials Science 28 5569-5575 (1993).
  72. M. DeMarco, X. W. Wang, S. S. Bayya, R. L. Snyder, M. White, and M. Naughton, “Mössbauer and Magnetization Study of Ni Ferrites Prepared by a Plasma Deposition Technique,”  J. Appl. Phys. 73 [10] 6287-6289 (1993).
  73. D. P. Matheis, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “Phase Formation and Growth Mechanisms in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 GlassCeramics,” Physica C 207 134-142 (1993).
  74. L. M. Fisher, N. V. Ilin, I. F. Voloshin, N. M. Makarov, V. A. Yampolskii, F. Perez Rodriguez and R. L. Snyder, “On the Applicability of the Critical State Model to the Description of Electromagnetic Properties of HighTc Superconductors,” Physica C 206 195201 (1993).
  75. M. A. Rodriguez, R. L. Snyder, B. J. Chen, D. P. Matheis, S. T. Misture, V. D. Frechette, G. Zorn, H. Göbel, and B. Seebacher, “The High Temperature Reactions of YBa2Cu3O7-” Physica C 206 43-50 (1993).
  76. F. Spitulnik, X. W. Wang, R. Noble, D. J. Finnigan, V. R. W. Amarakoon and R. L. Snyder, “Continuous-Wave Nd:YAG Laser Deposition of Predominantly Cubic Phase CdS Films,” J. of Materials Synthesis and Processing, 1 [5] 335-340 (1993).
  77. R. Kudesia, R. L. Snyder, R. A. Condrate and A. E. McHale, “Structural Study of Zr0.8Sn0.2Ti4” J. Phys. Chem of Solids 54 [6] 671-684 (1993).
  78. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, and R. L. Snyder, “A Study of Glass Formation and Crystallization of Y2O3-BaOCuOB2O3 GlassCeramics”, Glastechnische Berichte, 66 [2] 21-24 (1993).
  79. M. A. Rodriguez, J. J. Simmins and R. L. Snyder, “The YBa4Cu2O8.5+ An Interesting Nonsuperconductor”, J. Mater. Res. 8 [3] 415-420 (1993).
  80. R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Reference Intensity Ratios in Xray Quantitative Analysis,” Powder Diffraction, 7 [4] 186-193 (1992).
  81. B. J. Reardon and R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Ga2O3 and In2O3 in Forming Superconducting GlassCeramics in the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O System”, Glastech. Ber., 65 [10] 287-291 (1992).
  82. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “Direct Observations of Textured YBa2Cu3O7- Crystal Growth from the Melt,” Physica C, 195 118-124 (1992).
  83. M. A. Rodriguez, B. J. Chen and R. L. Snyder “The Formation Mechanism of Textured YBa2Cu3O7-“, Physica C 195 185-194 (1992).
  84. R. L. Snyder, M. A. Rodriguez, and B. J. Chen, H. E. Göbel, G. Zorn, and F. B. Seebacher, “Analysis of YBa2Cu3O7- Peritectic Reactions and Orientation by High Temperature XRD and Optical Microscopy”, Adv. Xray Anal. 35, 623-632 (1992).
  85. D. R. Boehme, M. C. Nichols, R. L. Snyder and D. P. Matheis, “An Investigation of the Terich Uranium Tellurides Using Xray Powder Diffraction”, J. Alloys and Compounds, 179, 37-59 (1992).
  86. L. M. Fisher, V. S. Gorbachev, N. V. Ilin, N. M. Makarov, V. A. Yampol’skii, R. L. Snyder, S. T. Misture, J. A. Taylor, V. W. R. Amarakoon, M. A. Rodriguez, D. P. Matheis, A.M. M. Barus and J. G. Fagan, “Effect of Microstructure on the MagneticField Dependence of the Local Critical Current Density in YBa2Cu3O7- Superconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 46 [17], 1098610996 (1992).
  87. A. Bhargava, A. K. Varshneya and R. L. Snyder, “Synthesis of Superconducting Ceramic Coated Metal Wires by a GlassCeramic Technique”, Matl. Ltrs. 11 313316 (1991).
  88. R. L. Snyder, M. C. Nichols and D. R. Boehme, “The Crystal Structures and Powder Diffraction Patterns of the Uranium Tellurides A Critical Review”, Powder Diffraction 6, 204 -227 (1991).
  89. R. S. Zhou and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystal Structures and Transformation Mechanisms of the ,  & ࿠Transition Aluminas”, Acta Cryst. B 47, 617-630 (1991).
  90. R. S. Zhou, M. M. Teeter and R. L. Snyder, “C3DCON: A Stereo 3D Electron Density Cage Contouring and Atomic Structure Plotting Program”, J. Appl. Cryst. 24 193-195 (1991).
  91. X. W. Wang, H. H. Zhong, and R. L. Snyder, “RF Plasma Aerosol Deposition of Superconductive YBa2Cu3O7- Films at Atmospheric Pressure”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57 [15], 15811583, (1990).
  92. M. A. Rodriguez, D. P. Matheis, S. S. Bayya, J. J. Simmins, R. L. Snyder and D. E. Cox, “A Search for a Low Temperature Phase Transition Prior to Superconducting Behavior in the YBa2Cu3O7- Compound”, J. Mater. Res. Soc. 5 [9], 17991801 (1990).
  93. D. A. Norris, M. A. Rodriguez, S. K. Fukuda, R. L. Snyder, “XRay Powder Data for -Si3N4”, Powder Diffraction 5 [1], 225 (1990).
  94. D. P. Matheis and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystal structures and Powder Diffraction Patterns of the High Tc Ceramic Superconductors”, Powder Diffraction, 5 [1], 825 (1990).
  95. Y. H. Kao, Y. D. Yao, L. Y. Jang, F. Xu, A. Krol, L. W. Song, C. J. Sher, A. Darovsky, J. C. Phillips, J. Simmins and R. L. Snyder, “Effects of Silver Doping in the HighTc Superconducting System YBaCuO”, J. Appl. Phys. 67 [1], 353361 (1990).
  96. J. L. Porter, T. K. Vethanayagam, R. L. Snyder and J. A. T. Taylor, “Reactivity of Ceramic Superconductors with Palladium Alloys”, J. Amer. Cer. Soc. 73 [6], 1760 (1990).
  97. A. Bhargava, R. L. Snyder and A. K. Varshneya, “Preliminary Investigations of Superconducting Glassceramics in the BiSrCaCuO System”, Matl. Ltrs. 8 [10], 425431 (1989).
  98. P. H. McCluskey, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, Sr., “Infrared Spectral Studies of Various Metal Polyacrylates”, J. Solid State Chem. 83 [2], 332339 (1989).
  99. A. Plancon, R. F. Giese, V. A. Drits, A. S. Bookin and R. L. Snyder, “Stacking Faults in the Kaolingroup Minerals”, Clays and Clay Minerals, 37 [3], 203210 (1989).
  100. A. Bhargava, A. K. Varshneya and R. L. Snyder, “On the Stability of Superconducting Yba2Cu3O7- in a Borate Glassceramic Matrix”, Mater. Lett., 8 [12], 4145 (1989).
  101. Y. D. Yao, Y. H. Kao, J. J. Simmins, R. L. Snyder, Z. Tao and K. W. Jones, “Changes in the Physical Properties of the High Tc Superconductor YBaCuO Due to Copper Deficiency”, Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 3 [6], (1989).
  102. T. K. Vethanayagam, W. A. Schulze, J. A. T. Taylor and R. L. Snyder, “Inductance Technique for Measuring Transition Temperatures of Superconducting Powders”, Inter. J. of Modern Physics B, 3 [5], 763772 (1989).
  103. M.A. Rodriguez, J. J. Simmins, P. H. McCluskey, R. S. Zhou, and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystal Structure of the Cubic and Tetragonal Phases of YBa3Cu2O6.5+ and Yba4Cu2O6.5+”,
    Adv. in Xray Anal., 32, 497505 (1989).
  104. S. A. Howard and R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Direct Convolution Products in Profile and Pattern Fitting Algorithms I. Development of the Algorithms”, J. Appl. Cryst. 22, 238243 (1989).
  105. C. R. Hubbard and R. L. Snyder, “Reference Intensity Ratio Measurement and Use in Quantitative XRD”, Powder Diffraction, 3 [2], 7477 (1988).
  106. A. Bhargava, J. E. Shelby and R. L. Snyder, “Structure and crystallization studies on a ternary borate glass system”, J. NonCrystalline Solids, 102 [13], 136142 (1988).
  107. P. H. McCluskey, G. S. Fischman and R. L. Snyder, “Preparation and Thermoanalytic Studies of Yttrium Poly(acrylate)”, J. Therm. Analysis, 34 [56], 14411448 (1988).
  108. A. Bhargava, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, Sr., “Preparation of BaTiO3 glassceramics in the system BaTiBO, Part 1”, Mater. Lett., 7 [56], 185189 (1988).
  109. A. Bhargava, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, Sr., “Preparation of BaTiO3 GlassCeramics in the system BaTiBO, Part 2,” Materials Letters, 7 [5,6], 190196 (1988).
  110. G. S. Smith, Q. C. Johnson, D. K. Smith, D. E. Cox, R. L. Snyder, R. S. Zhou, A. Zalkin, “The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Beryllium Dihydride”, Solid State Commun. 67, 4914 (1988).
  111. A. Plancon, R. F. Giese, Jr. and R. L. Snyder, “The Hinckley Index for Kaolinites”, Clay Minerals 23 [3], 249260 (1988).
  112. M. Heuberger, A. Bhargava, and R. L. Snyder, “The Reproducible Production of Pure Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7- Mater. Lett. 11, 489494 (1987).
  113. A. Bhargava, M. Heuberger, and R. L. Snyder, “Effects of Atmosphere on YBa2Cu3O7- During Processing”, Mater. Lett. 11, 495499 (1987).
  114. J. E. Shelby, R. L. Snyder, A. Bhargava, J. J. Simmins, N. L. Corah, P. H. McCluskey, and C. Sheckler, “Thermoanalytic Study of the Superconducting Compound YBa2Cu3O7-“, Chemtronics 2, 130132 (1987).
  115. A. Bhargava, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, Sr., “The Raman and Infrared Spectra of the glasses in the System BaOTiO2B2O3”, Matl. Res. Bull. 22, 16031611 (1987).
  116. J. E. Shelby, A. Bhargava, J. J. Simmins, N. L. Corah, P. H. McCluskey, C. Sheckler and R. L. Snyder, “Atmospheric Effects During Thermal Cycling of Yba2Cu3O7- Superconductors”, Mater. Res. Lett., 5 [11-12], 420425 (1987).
  117. J. P. Cline and R. L. Snyder, “The Effects of Extinction on Xray Powder Diffraction Intensities”, Adv. in Xray Anal. 30, 447456 (1987).
  118. G. S. Smith, Q. C. Johnson, D. E. Cox, R. L. Snyder, D. K. Smith, A. Zalkin, “Synchrotron Radiation Applied to Computer Indexing”, Adv. in Xray Anal. 30, 383388 (1987).
  119. R. L. Snyder, “The Accuracy of Measurements and Data Evaluation in Xray Powder Diffraction”, Z. Krist., 162, 207208 (1983)(in German).
  120. R. L. Snyder, “Accuracy in Angle and Intensity Measurements in Xray Powder Diffraction”, Adv. Xray Anal., 26, 111 (1983).
  121. C. R. Hubbard, C. R. Robbins and R. L. Snyder, “XRD Quantitative Analysis using the NBS*QUANT82 System”, Adv. Xray Anal., 26, 149157 (1983).
  122. S. Cherukuri, R. L. Snyder and D. Beard, “Comparison of the Hanawalt and Johnson Vand Computer Search Match Strategies”, Adv. Xray Anal. 26, 99105 (1983).
  123. S. A. Howard and R. L. Snyder, “An Evaluation of Some Profile Models and the Optimization Procedures used in Profile Fitting”, Adv. Xray Anal. 26, 7381 (1983).
  124. J. P. Cline and R. L. Snyder, “The Dramatic Effect of Crystallite Size on Xray Intensities”, Adv. Xray Anal., 26, 111118 (1983).
  125. M. A. Krebs, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Condrate, “The Raman Spectra and XRay Powder Diffraction Data of Stabilized Hafnia Phases”, Mat. Res. Bull. 18, 10891093 (1983).
  126. R. L. Snyder, C. R. Hubbard and N. C. Panagiotopoulos, “A Second Generation Automated Powder Diffractometer Control System”, Adv. Xray Anal. 25, 245260 (1982).
  127. R. L. Snyder, “A Hanawalt Type Phase Identification Procedure for a Minicomputer”, Adv. Xray Anal. 24, 8390 (1981).
  128. C. L. Mallory and R. L. Snyder, “The Control and Processing of Data from an Automated Xray Powder Diffractometer”, Adv. Xray Anal. 22, 121132 (1979).
  129. S. T. Smith, R. L. Snyder and W. E. Brownell, “Quantitative Phase Analysis of Devonian Shales by Computer Controlled Xray Diffraction of Spray Dried Samples”, Adv. Xray Anal. 22, 181192 (1979).
  130. S. T. Smith, R. L. Snyder and W. E. Brownell, “Minimization of Preferred Orientation in Powders by Spray Drying”, Adv. Xray Anal. 22, 7788 (1979).
  131. G. S. Smith and R. L. Snyder, “Fn: A Criterion for Rating Powder Diffraction Patterns and Evaluating the Reliability of Powder Pattern Indexing”, J. Appl. Cryst. 12, 6065 (1979).
  132. T. D. Croft, J. S. Reed and R. L. Snyder, “Microstratified Mixing of Ceramic Systems: Viscosity Dependence”, Ceramic Bulletin, 57 [12], 11111115 (1978).
  133. J. W. Medernach and R. L. Snyder, “The Powder Diffraction Patterns and Structures of the Bismuth Oxides”, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc., 61 [1112], 494497 (1978).
  134. Chon Il Park, R. A. Condrate and R. L. Snyder, “The Raman Spectra of PerovskiteStructured Alkaline Earth Hafnates”, Appl. Spectroscopy, 30, 352353 (1976).
  135. R. Porter and R. L. Snyder, “The Crystallographic Modifications of MnO2”, American Mineralogist, 58 (1973).
  136. R. L. Snyder, E. L. McGandy, R. L. VanEtten, L. M. Trefonas and R. L. Towns, “The Crystal and Molecular Structure of 1,1Dibenzyl3,3Dimethylaztidinium Bromide”, Acta Cryst., S28, 29 (1972).
  137. R. L. Snyder and R. D. Rosenstein, “The Crystal and Molecular Structure of the 1:1 Hydrogen Bond Complex Between DGlucose and Urea”, Acta Cryst. B, 27, 1969 (1971).
  138. R. L. Snyder, R. D. Rosenstein, H. S. Kim and G. A. Jeffrey, “A Comparison of the Structures of the GlucoseUrea and GlucitolPyridine Hydrogen Bond Complexes”, Carbohyd. Res., 12, 153156 (1970).
  139. R. L. Snyder, E. L. McGandy, R. L. VanEtten, L. M. Trefonas and R. L. Towns, “A Planar Azetidinium Compound”, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 91, 6187 (1969).

Proceedings Papers and Major Reports

  1. K. Beyerlein, A. Cervellino, M. Leoni, R.L. Snyder and P. Scardi, “Debye Equation versus Whole Powder Pattern Modelling: Real versus Reciprocal Space Modelling of Nanomaterials”, EPDIC10-European Powder Diffraction, E. J. Mittemeijer ed., Materials Science Forum, Tans. Tech Publications, Zürich, in press (2009).
  2. Y. Cai, M. R. Weatherspoon, E. Ernst,  M. S. Haluska, R. L. Snyder, K. H. Sandhage, “3D Microparticles of BaTiO3 and Zn2SiO4 (Sol-Gel Acetate Precursor or Hydrothermal) Conversion of Biologically (Diatom) Templates,” Ceram Eng. Sci. Proc. 27[8] 49-56 (2007)
  3. K. H. Sandhage, S. Shian, C. S. Gaddis, M. R. Weatherspoon, Y. Cai, S. Yoo, M. S.
    Haluska, R. L. Snyder, Y. Liu, M. Liu, N. Ferrel, D. J. Hansford, M. Hildebrand and B. Palenik, “Biologically Enabled Synthesis of Nanostructured 3-D Sensor Materials: The Potential for 3-D Genically Engineered Microdevices (3-D GEMS), J. Rare Metal Mater.
    Eng. 35(3) 13-14 (2006).
  4. I. C. Dragomir , M. Gheorghe, N. Thadhani and R. L. Snyder, “Dislocation densities and character evolution in copper deformed by rolling under liquid nitrogen from X-ray peak profile analysis”, Adv. X-ray Anal. 48, 67-72 (2005).
  5. Raymond Oh, Iuliana  Dragomir-Cernatescu, Joe Cochran and Robert L. Snyder, “Residual Stress Analysis of A Co-Extruded Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Platform”, Mat. Sci & Tech Conf. (2005).
  6. M. R. Weatherspoon, S. H. Allan, C. S. Gaddis, Ye Cai, M.S. Haluska, R. L. Snyder and
    K. H. Sandhage, “Perovskite Partcles from Phytoplankton”, in Biological and Bioinspired Materials and Devices ed K. H. Sandhage, S. Yang, T. Douglas, A. R. Parker and E. Dimasi, Mater. Res. Soc. Symo. Proc. Vol. 837E (2005).
  7. Allan S.M., Weatherspoon M.R., Graham P.D, Cai Y., Haluska M.S., Snyder R.L., Sandhage K.H.,  “Shape-preserving chemical conversion of self-assembled 3-D bioclastic micro/nanostructures via low-temperature displacement reactions,” Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 26, [3], 289-296, (2005). [Best Paper Award].
  8. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder and K. H. Sandhage, “The Fabrication of Dense W-Rich W/ZrC  Composites by the PRIMA-DCP Process at 1300º C,” pp. 403-412 in Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XI vol 2, ed T. S. Srivatsen, R.A. Varin ASM International, Materials Park OH (2003).
  9. J. Nash, M. B. Dickerson, K. Pathak, K. H. Sandhage, R. L. Snyder, U. Balachandran, B.
    Ma, R. Blaugher, R. Battacharya, “Novel Closed Heating Chambers for Rapid in-situ HTXRD Analysis of Gas/Solid and Liquid/Solid Reactions”, pp 44-52, in Processing and Fabrication of Advanced Materials XI vol 2, ed T. S. Srivatsen, R.A. Varin ASM International, Materials Park OH (2003).
  10. P. K. Gupta, P. M. Anderson, R. G. Buchheit, S. A. Dregia, J. J. Lannutti, M. J. Mills and R. L. Snyder, “The New Materials Science and Engineering Curriculum at The Ohio State University,” Proceedings of the Materials Research Society (2003).
  11. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder and K. H. Sandhage, “Low-Temperature Fabrication of Dense Near Net-Shaped Tungsten/Zirconium Carbide Composites with Tailored Phase Contents by the Prima-DCP Process,” Ceram. Eng. Sci. Proc. (Proc. Cocoa Beach Conf.) (2001).
  12. M. B. Dickerson, R. L. Snyder and K. H. Sandhage, “Rapid, Low-Temperature Fabrication of Very-High Melting ZrC/W-Bearing Composites by the Prima-DCP Process,” Proc. Spring TMS Meeting  (2001)
  13. Steven Baker, Julian G. Hill, Robert Snyder, Thomas W. Lester, Richard D. Tenaglia, “Breaking Down the Barriers to the Beneficial Reuse of Depleted Uranium,” Proc of 99 Waste Management Conf, Tempe AZ (1999).
  14. J. Faber, R. Jenkins and R. L. Snyder, “Use of Multiple Databases in X-ray Powder Diffractometry,” Proceedings of ISPA ’98 S. P. Sen Gupta ed., Allied Publishers Ltd., New Delhi p. 135-143 (1999).
  15. J. Faber, R. Jenkins and R. L. Snyder, “Use of Multiple Databases in X-ray Powder Diffractometry,” Proccedings of Japan Science and Technology Conference, (1998).
  16. B. J. Chen and R. L. Snyder, “The Application of Dynamic Characterization to the Melt Texturing of YBa2Cu3O7-“,  EPDIC5-European Powder Diffraction, R. Delhez and E. J. Mittemeijer eds., Materials Science Forum, Tans. Tech Publciations, Zürich, 278-281 (1998).
  17. R. L. Snyder, “Microstructure Analysis by Diffraction – The Beginning of the End,” Rigaku Journal (1996).
  18. D. Sriram, R. L. Snyder and V. R. W. Amarakoon, “Nanophase Copper Ferrite Using an Organic Gelation Technique,” Proceedings of Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. 457 81-87 (1996).
  19. C. Park, D. H. Lee, R. A. Condrate, Sr. and R. L. Snyder, “Relation between silver and residual carbon content in the processing Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O6.5+ Advances in Superconductivity VIII, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Superconductivity (ISS95) Hamamatsu, Japan, Editor: Hayakawa, Hisao, 391395 SpringerVerlag Tokoyo (1996).
  20. C. Park, M. Haluska and R. L. Snyder, “High temperature reaction sequence study of
    Tl0.5Pb0.5Sr2CaCu2O6.5+,” Proceedings of the 7th USJapan Workshop on HighTc Superconductors,” Tsukuba, Japan, Editor: Tachikawa, Kyoji. (1995).
  21. D. Sriram and R. L. Snyder, “Advanced  Manufacturing of Fast Fired Whiteware Bodies via Dynamic Characterization,” Sci. Whitewares, [Proc.Sci. Whitewares Conf.] V. E. Henkes, G. Y. Onoda and W. M. Carty editors, The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, OH pp. 265280 (1996).
  22. R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Reference Intensity Ratios in Quantitative Analysis”, Proceedings of the Diffraction Methods in Materials Science, J. Hasek, ed. Nova Science Publishers, New York, 239-252 (1996).
  23. D. Sriram and R. L. Snyder, “Investigation of Copper Ferrite, Cu0.5Fe2.5O4, as a High Saturation Magnetization Material,” Symp. Proc. Series, Mat. Res. Soc., 401, 449-54
  24. Fisher, L.M.; Kalinov, A.V.; Mirkovic, J.; Voloshin, I.F.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Obolenskii, M.A.; Snyder, R.L. “Comparative Study of Anisotropy of the Critical Current Density in YBCO Melt Textured Samples and Single Crystals,” Russia. Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 148 (Vol. 1) 319-22 (1995).
  25. J. G. Fagan, K. D. Vuong, C. Q. Shen, J. A. Williams, E. Tenpas, D. Partis, X. W. Wang,
    V. W. R. Amarakoon, B. J. Chen and R. L. Snyder, “Influence of Excess Platinum and Yttrium Containing Additives on the Microstructural and Phase Formation Kinetics in the YBa2Cu3O7- System,” Proc. Intersoc. Energy Convers. Eng. Conf. IECEC 3 107316
  26. R. L. Snyder, “Intelligent Manufacturing of Advanced Materials,” Proceedings 41st Sagamore Conference p.293-303 (1994).
  27. S. S. Bayya, K. Kuehn, R. L. Snyder and J. J. Simmins, “Plasma Deposition of Ferrite
    Films,” Ceramic Transactions 47 295-304 (1995).
  28. K. Kuehn, S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “The Synthesis of Cu0.5Fe2.5O4 a New Record in Magnetization,” Ceramic Transactions 47 185-93 (1995).
  29. S. S. Bayya, C. Park and R. L. Snyder, “Molten Salt Powder Synthesis in the Development of Practical Superconductors,” Processing of Long Lengths of Superconductors, U. Balachandran, E. W. Collings and A. Goyal, editors, TMS Warrendale, PA. 185194 (1993).
  30. R. L. Snyder, “Quantitative Xray Powder Diffraction,” Giornate di Studio Diffrattometria a Raggi x su Materiali Policristallini, G. Berti, Vigo Cursi, Pisa Italy, 122 (1993).
  31. R. L. Snyder, S. T. Misture, and D. P. Matheis, “The GlassCeramic Route to Bismuth Superconductors,” Fundamentals of Glass Science and Technology,  Stazione Sperimentale del Vitro, Venice, 423426 (1993).
  32. B. J. Chen,  S. T. Misture, and R. L. Snyder, “A Study of MeltTexturing Effects in the YBa2Cu3O7-mB2O3 System,” Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 5, H. S. Kwok,
    D. T. Shaw and M. J. Naughton, editors, Am. Inst. of Phys. 356365 (1993).
  33. S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “Growth Anisotropic Tl2212 Particles by Molten Salt Synthesis,” Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 5, H. S. Kwok, D. T. Shaw and M. J. Naughton, editors, Am. Inst. of Phys. 575581 (1993).
  34. S. T. Misture, D. P. Matheis, and R. L. Snyder, “Preparation, Melting Sequences, and MeltTexturing of Bi2212 Thick Films, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 5, H. S. Kwok, D. T. Shaw and M. J. Naughton, editors, Am. Inst. of Phys. 582592 (1993).
  35. M. Mueller, K. Park, W. A. Edelstein, C. Park, S. S. Bayya and R. L. Snyder, “A Cryogenic ClassE RF Power Amplifier,” Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 5, H. S. Kwok, D. T. Shaw and M. J. Naughton, editors, Am. Inst. of Phys. 492-502 (1993).
  36. R. L. Snyder, “Reference Intensity Ratios, Whole Pattern Fitting and Standardless Xray Quantitative Analysis,” Accuracy in Powder Diffraction II, National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication, p. 25-33 (1992).
  37. X. W. Wang, R. Kudesia, J. Lou, J. Hao, R. L. Snyder, H. M. Duan and A. M. Hermann, “Deposition of Electronic Films by Atmospheric RF Plasma Aerosol Spray Techniques”, Thermal Spray: International Advances in Coatings Technology, ASM International, Metals Park, OH, 567574 (1992).
  38. R. L. Snyder, “Approaches to Bulk HighTemperature Superconductors”, Proceedings of the Fourth USJapan Workshop on Superconductivity, NIST, February (1992).
  39. R. L. Snyder, “Toward Practical HighTemperature Superconductors”, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 4, Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 252260 (1992).
  40. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, S. T. Misture and R. L. Snyder, “High Temperature Reactions and Orientation of YBa2Cu3O7-“, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 4, Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 312318 (1992).
  41. S. S. Bayya, G. C. Stangle and R. L. Snyder, “Synthesis of Superconducting Phases in the TlBaCaCuO System”, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 4 Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 261273 (1992).
  42. L. M. Fisher, V. S Gorbashev, N. V. Ilin, N. M. Makarov, I. F. Voloshin, V. A. Yampol’skii,  R. L. Snyder, J. A. T. Taylor, V. W. R. Amarakoon, M. A. Rodriguez, S. T. Misture, D. P. Matheis, A. M. M. Barus and J. G. Fagan, “The Universal Magnetic Field Dependence of the Local Critical Current Density in HighTc Ceramics”, Superconductivity and Its Applications,
    Vol. 4, Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 625636 (1992).
  43. H. M. Duan, A. M. Hermann, X. W. Wang, J. Hao and R. L. Snyder, “Superconducting TlBaCaCuO Thin Films with BaCaCuO Precursors”, Superconductivity and Its Applications , Vol. 4, Y. H. Kao, H. S. Kwok and A. E. Kaloyeros, editors, Amer. Phys. Soc. 153161
  44. A. Bhargava, M. A. Rodriguez and R. L. Snyder, “MetalCeramic Composite Superconducting Wires,” Superconductor Engineering, T. O. Mensah, editor, American Society of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series No. 287, v. 88, 7275 (1992).
  45. J. Hao, X. W. Wang and R. L. Snyder, “RF Plasma Aerosol Deposition of Superconductive Yba2Cu3O7-࿠Films at Atmospheric Pressure”, Proceedings of the Fourth Thermal Spray Conference, Pittsburgh, PA USA May 410, p 509512 (1991).
  46. R. L. Snyder, CES348 Xray Diffraction, Alfred University 130 p. (1991).
  47. R. L. Snyder and X. W. Wang, RF Plasma Aerosol Deposition of Superconductive YBaCuO Films at Atmospheric Pressure”, RLTR91294, Rome Laboratory, Griffiss AFB, NY, Nov. (1991).
  48. D. Boehme, M. C. Nichols, R. L. Snyder and D. P. Matheis, An Investigation of the Terich Uranium Tellurides Using Xray Powder Diffraction, Sandia National Laboratory Report  SAND908239, 40 pages (1991).
  49. R. L. Snyder, “Applied Crystallography in Advanced Ceramics”, EPDIC1 European Powder Diffraction, R. Delhez and E. J. Mittemeijer editors, Materials Science Forum, Vol. 7982, 513528 Trans Tech Publications, Zürich (1991).
  50. R. L. Snyder, “Toward a Practical High-Temperature Superconductor: Research at the Institute for Ceramic Superconductivity at Alfred University”, Superconductivity II American Ceramic Society, 607-619 (1991).
  51. S. S. Bayya, R. Kudesia and R. L. Snyder, “EXAFS Studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 Glass and Glass Ceramic”, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Vol. 3, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc. 306-314 (1990).
  52. B. J. Reardon and R. L. Snyder, “The Use of Ga2O3 and In2O3 in Forming Superconducting Glass Ceramics”, Superconductivity and Its Applications Vol. 3, Y. H.
    Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc. 599-609 (1990).
  53. D. P. Matheis, R. L. Snyder and C. R. Hubbard, “High Temperature Reactions in the Processing of Ceramic Superconductors via the Glass ceramic Method”, Superconductivity and Its Applications Vol. 3, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc., 582-588 (1990).
  54. B. J. Chen, M. A. Rodriguez, and R. L. Snyder, “Glass Formation and Textured Crystallization in the Y2O3BaOCuOB2O3 and Y2O3BaOCuOP2O5 Systems”, Superconductivity and Its Applications Vol. 3, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc., 589-598 (1990).
  55. M. A. Rodriguez and R. L. Snyder, “The Effect of BaCO3 Precursor on the Formation of Phases in the BaOY2O3CuO System”, Superconductivity and Its Applications, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc. 610-616 (1990).
  56. H. H. Zhong, X. W. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Deposition of Superconductive YBa2Cu3O7- Films at Atmospheric Pressure by RF Plasma Aerosol Technique”, Superconductivity and Its Applications Vol. 3, Y. H. Kao, P. Coppens and H. S. Kwok editors, Am. Phys. Soc., 531-542 (1990).
  57. X. W. Wang, H. H. Zhong, and R. L. Snyder, “Superconducting YBa2Cu3O7- Films by RF Plasma Aerosol Evaporation at Atmospheric Pressure”, Science and Technology of Thin Film Superconductors 2, Plenum Press, New York 311317 (1990).
  58. J. J. Simmins, M. J. Hanagan, G. S. Fischman and R. L. Snyder, “Activation Energy of Decomposition of Y2BaCuO5 in Wet CO2 at Elevated Temperatures”, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol. 169, 261264 (1990).
  59. R. L. Snyder, M. C. Nichols and D. Boehme, The Crystal Structures and Powder Diffraction Patterns of the Uranium Tellurides A Critical Review, Sandia National Laboratory Report SAND908235, 92 pages (1990).
  60. P. H. McCluskey, G. S. Fischman and R. L. Snyder, “High Surface Area Chemically Synthesized Y2O3”, Proc. 2nd Conf. on Cer. Processing. Deutsche Keramische Gesellschaft, H. Hausner, G. L. Messing and S. Hirano editors, 111119 (1989).
  61. T. K. Vethanayagam, R. L. Snyder and J. A. T. Taylor, “Atmospheric Plasma Vapor Deposition of BaYCuOxide and BiSrCaCuOxide Thin Films”, Thermal Spray Technology New Ideas and Processes, D. L. Houck Ed., ASM International, Metals Park, OH, 233238 (1989).
  62. R. L. Snyder, Xray Analysis  A text, Alfred University 280 p. (1989).
  63. R. L. Snyder, INDEX  An Interactive PC System for Computer Indexing of Powder Diffraction Programs, MDI Inc., 131 p. (1988).
  64. R. L. Snyder, NBS*QUANT88  An Data Collection and Analysis System for Quantitative Phase Analysis, Siemens AG, 62 p. (1988).
  65. J. J. Simmins and R. L. Snyder, “The Effect of Silver Substitution for Copper on the Crystal Structure of YBa2Cu3O7-  Superconductor”, pages 8994, The Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Superconductivity, edited by David T. Shaw and Hoi Sing Kwok, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., July (1988).
  66. P. H. McCluskey and R. L. Snyder, “Organometallic Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7-,” The Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Superconductivity, edited by David T. Shaw and Hoi S. Kwok, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., p 100104, July (1988).
  67. A. Bhargava, A. K. Varshneya and R. L. Snyder, “Crystallization of Glasses in the System BaOY2O3CuOB2O3, p 124129, The Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Superconductivity, edited by David T. Shaw and Hoi Sing Kwok, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co., July (1988).
  68. R. S. Zhou and R. L. Snyder, GRAFIT  An Interactive Program for Producing Color Plots, Alfred University, (1988).
  69. E. C. Behrman, + 48 others, “Synthesis, Characterization and Fabrication of High Temperature Superconducting Oxides”, Adv. Cer. Mat. 2 [3B], 539555 (1987).
  70. R. L. Snyder, Xray Diffraction Analysis  A text for CES358, 134 p. Alfred University, (1987).
  71. R. S. Zhou and R. L. Snyder, FILECONV  An Program to Interconvert Powder Diffraction File Formats, Alfred University, (1986).
  72. R. L. Snyder and C. R. Hubbard, NBS*QUANT84: A System for Quantitative Analysis by Automated Xray Powder Diffraction, NBS Special Publication, 101 pp. (1986).
  73. G. S. Smith, Q. C. Johnson, D. E. Cox, R. L. Snyder, D. K. Smith, A. Zalkin, Synchrotron Radiation Applied to Computer Indexing, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (UCRL94599), Oct. (1986).
  74. S. A. Howard and R. L. Snyder, “Simultaneous Crystallite Size, Strain and Structure Analysis from Xray Powder Diffraction Patterns”, Advances in Materials Characterization II, p 4356, R. L. Snyder, R. A. Condrate and P. F. Johnson, editors, Plenum Press, New York, (1985).
  75. J. P. Cline and R. L. Snyder, “Sample Characteristics Affecting Quantitative Analysis by Xray Powder Diffraction”, Advances in Materials Characterization II, p 131144, R. L. Snyder, R. A. Condrate and P. F. Johnson, editors, Plenum Press, New York, (1985).
  76. H. E. Göbel and R. L. Snyder, “Modern Trends in Xray Powder Diffraction”, Proceedings of MINTEK 50 Conference, 953959 (1984).
  77. R. L. Snyder, INTCAL An Program to Compute Accurate Lattice Parameters, Alfred University, (1984).
  78. S. A. Howard and R. L. Snyder, SHADOW  A Program for Xray Powder Diffraction Profile Analysis, New York State College of Ceramics Report, 62 pages (1984).
  79. R. L. Snyder, Diffrac 500  A System Design for Interactive Powder Diffraction Analysis, Siemens AG, (1983).
  80. R. L. Snyder , “The Renaissance of Xray Powder Diffraction”, p.449464 Advances in Materials Characterization, D. R. Rossington, R. A. Condrate, and R. L. Snyder, editors, Plenum Press, New York, (1983).
  81. R. L. Snyder, C. R. Hubbard and N. C. Panagiotopoulos, Auto: A Real Time Diffractometer Control System, National Bureau of Standards Publication NBSIR, 812229, 102 pages (1981).
  82. L. D. Calvert, J. L. FlippenAnderson, C. R. Hubbard, Q. C. Johnson, P. G. Lenhert, M. C. Nichols, W. Parrish, D. K. Smith, G. S. Smith, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Young, The Standard Form for Powder Diffraction Data, International Centre for Diffraction Data, 23 pages
  83. R. L. Snyder, SEARCH An Program to Automatically Carry out Phase Identification, Siemens AG, (1981).
  84. B. C. Osgood and R. L. Snyder, “POWDER A Computing System for Xray Powder Diffraction Calculations”, Accuracy in Powder Diffraction, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 567, p. 91 (1980).
  85. C. L. Mallory and R. L. Snyder, “Threshold Level Determination from Digital Xray Powder Diffraction Patterns”, Accuracy in Powder Diffraction, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 567, p. 93 (1980).
  86. L. D. Calvert, J. L. FlippenAnderson, C. R. Hubbard, Q. C. Johnson, P. G. Lenhert, M. C. Nichols, W. Parrish, D. K. Smith, G. S. Smith, R. L. Snyder and R. A. Young, “Standards for the Publication of Powder Patterns: The American Crystallographic Association Subcommittee Final Report”, Accuracy in Powder Diffraction, National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 567, p. 513536 (1980).
  87. R. L. Snyder, C. L. Mallory, S. T. Smith, B. C. Osgood and S. A. Howard, The Rebirth of Xray Powder Diffraction, New York State College of Ceramics Report 17, Vol. III, No. 5, 41 pages (1979).
  88. C. L. Mallory and R. L. Snyder, The Alfred University Xray Powder Diffraction Automation System, NYS College of Ceramics Technical Publication No. 144, 172 pages (1979).
  89. R. L. Snyder, “Introduction to Automated Xray Powder Diffraction”, Workshop on Automated Xray Diffraction, ed., R. L. Snyder, Denver Xray Conference, p. 114 (1979).
  90. R. L. Snyder, editor, Workshop on Automated Xray Diffraction, Denver Xray Conference, (1979).
  91. R. L. Snyder, Chemical Properties of Materials, NYS College of Ceramics, 88 pages
  92. R. L. Snyder, Guidelines for the Publication of Powder Diffraction Data, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (August 1978).
  93. R. L. Snyder, Q. C. Johnson, E. Kahara, G. S. Smith and M. C. Nichols, An Analysis of the Powder Diffraction File, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (UCRL52505), 61 pages (June 1978).
  94. G. S. Smith and R. L. Snyder, Numerical Ratings of Powder Diffraction Patterns, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (UCRL80759), March (1978).
  95. R. L. Snyder, SUINDEX  An Interactive Program to Setup for Powder Pattern Indexing, Alfred University, (1977).
  96. G. S. Smith and R. L. Snyder, American Crystallographic Association Project: Numerical Ratings of Powder Diffraction Patterns, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, (UCID17639), Nov. (1977).
  97. R. L. Snyder, SUPOWD An Interactive Program to Setup Powder Pattern Computations Using POWDn, Alfred University, (1976).
  98. R. L. Snyder, PREF A Program for Analyzing Preferred Orientation from Powder Diffraction Patterns, Alfred University, (1975).
  99. R. L. Snyder and W. L. Carr, “A Method of Determining the Preferred Orientation of Crystallites Normal to a Surface”, Surfaces and Interfaces of Glass and Ceramics, ed., V. D. Frechette p.8599 (1974)
  100. R. L. Snyder, Crystallographic and General Use Programs for XDS 5 Computer, Alfred University Research Foundation Report, 138 pages (1973).
  101. R. L. Snyder, “On Science and Technology”, JASEE, 63 [2], 88 (1972).
  102. R. L. Snyder, “CELDIMA Crystallographic Program for the HewlettPackard 9000B”, Keyboard 4 [1], 27 (1972).
  103. R. L. Snyder, Single Crystal Analysis Programs for the IBM 1130 Computer, University of Pittsburgh, (1969).
  104. R. L. Snyder, FLIST  A Program to Produce Publishable Structure Factor Tables, Brookhaven National Laboratory, (1968).
  105. R. L. Snyder, NANOVA Normal Analysis of Variance, Brookhaven National Laboratory, (1967).
  106. R. L. Snyder, Single Crystal Analysis Programs for the IBM 1620 Computer, Fordham University, (1966).
  107. R. L. Snyder, The Electroplating of High Phosphorus Bronze Alloys, IBM. Technical Report, (1963).

Protecting Children From Unhappiness As Kids, Deprives Them Happiness As Adults

DISCOMFORT WITH DISCOMFORT: If kids can’t experience painful feelings, they won’t develop “Psychological Immunity.”

The Article: How to Land Your Kid in Therapy: Why the obsession with our kids’ happiness may be dooming them to unhappy adulthoods

by Lori Gottlieb in the Atlantic.


The Text: If there’s one thing I learned in graduate school, it’s that the poet Philip Larkin was right. (“They fuck you up, your mum and dad, / They may not mean to, but they do.”) At the time, I was a new mom with an infant son, and I’d decided to go back to school for a degree in clinical psychology. With baby on the brain and term papers to write, I couldn’t ignore the barrage of research showing how easy it is to screw up your kids. Of course, everyone knows that growing up with “Mommy Dearest” produces a very different child from one raised by, say, a loving PTA president who has milk and homemade cookies waiting after school. But in that space between Joan Crawford and June Cleaver, where most of us fall, it seemed like a lot could go wrong in the kid-raising department.

As a parent, I wanted to do things right. But what did “right” mean? One look in Barnes & Noble’s parenting section and I was dizzy: child-centered, collaborative, or RIE? Brazelton, Spock, or Sears?

The good news, at least according to Donald Winnicott, the influential English pediatrician and child psychiatrist, was that you didn’t have to be a perfect mother to raise a well-adjusted kid. You just had to be, to use the term Winnicott coined, a “good-enough mother.” I was also relieved to learn that we’d moved beyond the concept of the “schizophrenogenic mother,” who’s solely responsible for making her kid crazy. (The modern literature acknowledges that genetics—not to mention fathers—play a role in determining mental health.) Still, in everything we studied—from John Bowlby’s “attachment theory” to Harry Harlow’s monkeys, who clung desperately to cloth dummies when separated from their mothers—the research was clear: fail to “mirror” your children, or miss their “cues,” or lavish too little affection on them, and a few decades later, if they had the funds and a referral, they would likely end up in one of our psychotherapy offices, on the couch next to a box of tissues, recounting the time Mom did this and Dad didn’t do that, for 50 minutes weekly, sometimes for years.

Our main job as psychotherapists, in fact, was to “re-parent” our patients, to provide a “corrective emotional experience” in which they would unconsciously transfer their early feelings of injury onto us, so we could offer a different response, a more attuned and empathic one than they got in childhood.

At least, that was the theory. Then I started seeing patients.

My first several patients were what you might call textbook. As they shared their histories, I had no trouble making connections between their grievances and their upbringings. But soon I met a patient I’ll call Lizzie. Imagine a bright, attractive 20-something woman with strong friendships, a close family, and a deep sense of emptiness. She had come in, she told me, because she was “just not happy.” And what was so upsetting, she continued, was that she felt she had nothing to be unhappy about. She reported that she had “awesome” parents, two fabulous siblings, supportive friends, an excellent education, a cool job, good health, and a nice apartment. She had no family history of depression or anxiety. So why did she have trouble sleeping at night? Why was she so indecisive, afraid of making a mistake, unable to trust her instincts and stick to her choices? Why did she feel “less amazing” than her parents had always told her she was? Why did she feel “like there’s this hole inside” her? Why did she describe herself as feeling “adrift”?

I was stumped. Where was the distracted father? The critical mother? Where were the abandoning, devaluing, or chaotic caregivers in her life?

As I tried to make sense of this, something surprising began happening: I started getting more patients like her. Sitting on my couch were other adults in their 20s or early 30s who reported that they, too, suffered from depression and anxiety, had difficulty choosing or committing to a satisfying career path, struggled with relationships, and just generally felt a sense of emptiness or lack of purpose—yet they had little to quibble with about Mom or Dad.

Instead, these patients talked about how much they “adored” their parents. Many called their parents their “best friends in the whole world,” and they’d say things like “My parents are always there for me.” Sometimes these same parents would even be funding their psychotherapy (not to mention their rent and car insurance), which left my patients feeling both guilty and utterly confused. After all, their biggest complaint was that they had nothing to complain about!

At first, I’ll admit, I was skeptical of their reports. Childhoods generally aren’t perfect—and if theirs had been, why would these people feel so lost and unsure of themselves? It went against everything I’d learned in my training.

But after working with these patients over time, I came to believe that no florid denial or distortion was going on. They truly did seem to have caring and loving parents, parents who gave them the freedom to “find themselves” and the encouragement to do anything they wanted in life. Parents who had driven carpools, and helped with homework each night, and intervened when there was a bully at school or a birthday invitation not received, and had gotten them tutors when they struggled in math, and music lessons when they expressed an interest in guitar (but let them quit when they lost that interest), and talked through their feelings when they broke the rules, instead of punishing them (“logical consequences” always stood in for punishment). In short, these were parents who had always been “attuned,” as we therapists like to say, and had made sure to guide my patients through any and all trials and tribulations of childhood. As an overwhelmed parent myself, I’d sit in session and secretly wonder how these fabulous parents had done it all.

Until, one day, another question occurred to me: Was it possible these parents had done too much?

Here I was, seeing the flesh-and-blood results of the kind of parenting that my peers and I were trying to practice with our own kids, precisely so that they wouldn’t end up on a therapist’s couch one day. We were running ourselves ragged in a herculean effort to do right by our kids—yet what seemed like grown-up versions of them were sitting in our offices, saying they felt empty, confused, and anxious. Back in graduate school, the clinical focus had always been on how the lack of parental attunement affects the child. It never occurred to any of us to ask, what if the parents are too attuned? What happens to those kids?

VIDEO: Lori Gottlieb speaks to parenting expert Wendy Mogel about the ways well-meaning parents can ruin their children.
CHILD-REARING HAS LONG been a touchy subject in America, perhaps because the stakes are so high and the theories so inconclusive. In her book Raising America: Experts, Parents, and a Century of Advice About Children, Ann Hulbert recounts how there’s always been a tension among the various recommended parenting styles—the bonders versus the disciplinarians, the child-centered versus the parent-centered—with the pendulum swinging back and forth between them over the decades. Yet the underlying goal of good parenting, even during the heyday of don’t-hug-your-kid-too-much advice in the 1920s (“When you are tempted to pet your child, remember that mother love is a dangerous instrument,” the behavioral psychologist John Watson wrote in his famous guide to child-rearing), has long been the same: to raise children who will grow into productive, happy adults. My parents certainly wanted me to be happy, and my grandparents wanted my parents to be happy too. What seems to have changed in recent years, though, is the way we think about and define happiness, both for our children and for ourselves.

Nowadays, it’s not enough to be happy—if you can be even happier. The American Dream and the pursuit of happiness have morphed from a quest for general contentment to the idea that you must be happy at all times and in every way. “I am happy,” writes Gretchen Rubin in The Happiness Project, a book that topped the New York Times best-seller list and that has spawned something of a national movement in happiness-seeking, “but I’m not as happy as I should be.”

How happy should she be? Rubin isn’t sure. She sounds exactly like some of my patients. She has two wonderful parents; a “tall, dark, and handsome” (and wealthy) husband she loves; two healthy, “delightful” children; a strong network of friends; a beautiful neo-Georgian mansion on the Upper East Side; a law degree from Yale; and a successful career as a freelance writer. Still, Rubin writes, she feels “dissatisfied, that something [is] missing.” So to counteract her “bouts of melancholy, insecurity, listlessness, and free-floating guilt,” she goes on a “happiness journey,” making lists and action items, buying three new magazines every Monday for a month, and obsessively organizing her closets.

At one point during her journey, Rubin admits that she still struggles, despite the charts and resolutions and yearlong effort put into being happy. “In some ways,” she writes, “I’d made myself less happy.” Then she adds, citing one of her so-called Secrets of Adulthood, “Happiness doesn’t always make you feel happy.”

Modern social science backs her up on this. “Happiness as a byproduct of living your life is a great thing,” Barry Schwartz, a professor of social theory at Swarthmore College, told me. “But happiness as a goal is a recipe for disaster.” It’s precisely this goal, though, that many modern parents focus on obsessively—only to see it backfire. Observing this phenomenon, my colleagues and I began to wonder: Could it be that by protecting our kids from unhappiness as children, we’re depriving them of happiness as adults?

Paul Bohn, a psychiatrist at UCLA who came to speak at my clinic, says the answer may be yes. Based on what he sees in his practice, Bohn believes many parents will do anything to avoid having their kids experience even mild discomfort, anxiety, or disappointment—“anything less than pleasant,” as he puts it—with the result that when, as adults, they experience the normal frustrations of life, they think something must be terribly wrong.

Consider a toddler who’s running in the park and trips on a rock, Bohn says. Some parents swoop in immediately, pick up the toddler, and comfort her in that moment of shock, before she even starts crying. But, Bohn explains, this actually prevents her from feeling secure—not just on the playground, but in life. If you don’t let her experience that momentary confusion, give her the space to figure out what just happened (Oh, I tripped), and then briefly let her grapple with the frustration of having fallen and perhaps even try to pick herself up, she has no idea what discomfort feels like, and will have no framework for how to recover when she feels discomfort later in life. These toddlers become the college kids who text their parents with an SOS if the slightest thing goes wrong, instead of attempting to figure out how to deal with it themselves. If, on the other hand, the child trips on the rock, and the parents let her try to reorient for a second before going over to comfort her, the child learns: That was scary for a second, but I’m okay now. If something unpleasant happens, I can get through it. In many cases, Bohn says, the child recovers fine on her own—but parents never learn this, because they’re too busy protecting their kid when she doesn’t need protection.

Which made me think, of course, of my own sprints across the sand the second my toddler would fall. And of the time when he was 4 and a friend of mine died of cancer and I considered … not telling him! After all, he didn’t even know she’d been sick (once, commenting on her head scarves, he’d asked me if she was an Orthodox Jew, and like a wuss, I said no, she just really likes scarves). I knew he might notice that we didn’t see her anymore, but all of the parenting listservs I consulted said that hearing about a parent’s death would be too scary for a child, and that, without lying (because God forbid that we enlightened, attuned parents ever lie to our children), I should sugarcoat it in all these ways that I knew would never withstand my preschooler’s onslaught of cross-examining whys.

In the end, I told my son the truth. He asked a lot of questions, but he did not faint from the shock. If anything, according to Bohn, my trusting him to handle the news probably made him more trusting of me, and ultimately more emotionally secure. By telling him, I was communicating that I believed he could tolerate sadness and anxiety, and that I was here to help him through it. Not telling him would have sent a very different message: that I didn’t feel he could handle discomfort. And that’s a message many of us send our kids in subtle ways every day.

Dan Kindlon, a child psychologist and lecturer at Harvard, warns against what he calls our “discomfort with discomfort” in his book Too Much of a Good Thing: Raising Children of Character in an Indulgent Age. If kids can’t experience painful feelings, Kindlon told me when I called him not long ago, they won’t develop “psychological immunity.”

“It’s like the way our body’s immune system develops,” he explained. “You have to be exposed to pathogens, or your body won’t know how to respond to an attack. Kids also need exposure to discomfort, failure, and struggle. I know parents who call up the school to complain if their kid doesn’t get to be in the school play or make the cut for the baseball team. I know of one kid who said that he didn’t like another kid in the carpool, so instead of having their child learn to tolerate the other kid, they offered to drive him to school themselves. By the time they’re teenagers, they have no experience with hardship. Civilization is about adapting to less-than-perfect situations, yet parents often have this instantaneous reaction to unpleasantness, which is ‘I can fix this.’”

Wendy Mogel is a clinical psychologist in Los Angeles who, after the publication of her book The Blessing of a Skinned Knee a decade ago, became an adviser to schools all over the country. When I talked to her this spring, she said that over the past few years, college deans have reported receiving growing numbers of incoming freshmen they’ve dubbed “teacups” because they’re so fragile that they break down anytime things don’t go their way. “Well-intentioned parents have been metabolizing their anxiety for them their entire childhoods,” Mogel said of these kids, “so they don’t know how to deal with it when they grow up.”

Which might be how people like my patient Lizzie end up in therapy. “You can have the best parenting in the world and you’ll still go through periods where you’re not happy,” Jeff Blume, a family psychologist with a busy practice in Los Angeles, told me when I spoke to him recently. “A kid needs to feel normal anxiety to be resilient. If we want our kids to grow up and be more independent, then we should prepare our kids to leave us every day.”

But that’s a big if. Blume believes that many of us today don’t really want our kids to leave, because we rely on them in various ways to fill the emotional holes in our own lives. Kindlon and Mogel both told me the same thing. Yes, we devote inordinate amounts of time, energy, and resources to our children, but for whose benefit?

“We’re confusing our own needs with our kids’ needs and calling it good parenting,” Blume said, letting out a sigh. I asked him why he sighed. (This is what happens when two therapists have a conversation.) “It’s sad to watch,” he explained. “I can’t tell you how often I have to say to parents that they’re putting too much emphasis on their kids’ feelings because of their own issues. If a therapist is telling you to pay less attention to your kid’s feelings, you know something has gotten way of out of whack.”

LAST OCTOBER, IN an article for the New York Times Magazine, Renée Bacher, a mother in Louisiana, described the emptiness she felt as she sent her daughter off to college in the Northeast. Bacher tried getting support from other mother friends, who, it turned out, were too busy picking up a refrigerator for a child’s college dorm room or rushing home to turn off a high-schooler’s laptop. And while Bacher initially justified her mother-hen actions as being in her daughter’s best interest—coming up with excuses to vet her daughter’s roommate or staying too long in her daughter’s dorm room under the guise of helping her move in—eventually she concluded: “As with all Helicopter Parenting, this was about me.”

Bacher isn’t unusual. Wendy Mogel says that colleges have had so much trouble getting parents off campus after freshman orientation that school administrators have had to come up with strategies to boot them. At the University of Chicago, she said, they’ve now added a second bagpipe processional at the end of opening ceremonies—the first is to lead the students to another event, the second to usher the parents away from their kids. The University of Vermont has hired “parent bouncers,” whose job is to keep hovering parents at bay. She said that many schools are appointing an unofficial “dean of parents” just to wrangle the grown-ups. Despite the spate of articles in recent years exploring why so many people in their 20s seem reluctant to grow up, the problem may be less that kids are refusing to separate and individuate than that their parents are resisting doing so.

“There’s a difference between being loved and being constantly monitored,” Dan Kindlon told me. And yet, he admitted, even he struggles. “I’m about to become an empty-nester,” he said, “and sometimes I feel like I’d burn my kids’ college applications just to have somebody to hang around with. We have less community nowadays—we’re more isolated as adults, more people are divorced—and we genuinely like spending time with our kids. We hope they’ll think of us as their best friends, which is different from parents who wanted their kids to appreciate them, but didn’t need them to be their pals. But many of us text with our kids several times a day, and would miss it if it didn’t happen. So instead of being peeved that they ask for help with the minutiae of their days, we encourage it.”

Long work hours don’t help. “If you’ve got 20 minutes a day to spend with your kid,” Kindlon asked, “would you rather make your kid mad at you by arguing over cleaning up his room, or play a game of Boggle together? We don’t set limits, because we want our kids to like us at every moment, even though it’s better for them if sometimes they can’t stand us.”

Kindlon also observed that because we tend to have fewer kids than past generations of parents did, each becomes more precious. So we demand more from them—more companionship, more achievement, more happiness. Which is where the line between selflessness (making our kids happy) and selfishness (making ourselves happy) becomes especially thin.

“We want our kids to be happy living the life we envision for them—the banker who’s happy, the surgeon who’s happy,” Barry Schwartz, the Swarthmore social scientist, told me, even though those professions “might not actually make them happy.” At least for parents of a certain demographic (and if you’re reading this article, you’re likely among them), “we’re not so happy if our kids work at Walmart but show up each day with a smile on their faces,” Schwartz says. “They’re happy, but we’re not. Even though we say what we want most for our kids is their happiness, and we’ll do everything we can to help them achieve that, it’s unclear where parental happiness ends and our children’s happiness begins.”

His comment reminded me of a conversation I’d just had with a camp director when I inquired about the program. She was going down the list of activities for my child’s age group, and when she got to basketball, T-ball, and soccer, she quickly added, “But of course, it’s all noncompetitive. We don’t encourage competition.” I had to laugh: all of these kids being shunted away from “competition” as if it were kryptonite. Not to get too shrink-y, but could this be a way for parents to work out their ambivalence about their own competitive natures?

It may be this question—and our unconscious struggle with it—that accounts for the scathing reaction to Amy Chua’s memoir, Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother, earlier this year. Chua’s efforts “not to raise a soft, entitled child” were widely attacked on blogs and mommy listservs as abusive, yet that didn’t stop the book from spending several months on the New York Times best-seller list. Sure, some parents might have read it out of pure voyeurism, but more likely, Chua’s book resonated so powerfully because she isn’t so different from her critics. She may have been obsessed with her kids’ success at the expense of their happiness—but many of today’s parents who are obsessed with their kids’ happiness share Chua’s drive, just wrapped in a prettier package. Ours is a have-your-cake-and-eat-it-too approach, a desire for high achievement without the sacrifice and struggle that this kind of achievement often requires. When the Tiger Mom looked unsparingly at her parental contradictions, perhaps she made the rest of us squirm because we were forced to examine our own.

Chua, says Wendy Mogel, “was admitting in such a candid way what loads of people think but just don’t own up to.” In her practice, Mogel meets many parents who let kids off the hook for even basic, simple chores so they can spend more time on homework. Are these parents being too lenient (letting the chores slide), or too hard-core (teaching that good grades are more important than being a responsible family member)? Mogel and Dan Kindlon agree that whatever form it takes—whether the fixation is happiness or success—parental overinvestment is contributing to a burgeoning generational narcissism that’s hurting our kids.

A FEW MONTHS AGO, I called up Jean Twenge, a co-author of The Narcissism Epidemic and professor of psychology at San Diego State University, who has written extensively about narcissism and self-esteem. She told me she wasn’t surprised that some of my patients reported having very happy childhoods but felt dissatisfied and lost as adults. When ego-boosting parents exclaim “Great job!” not just the first time a young child puts on his shoes but every single morning he does this, the child learns to feel that everything he does is special. Likewise, if the kid participates in activities where he gets stickers for “good tries,” he never gets negative feedback on his performance. (All failures are reframed as “good tries.”) According to Twenge, indicators of self-esteem have risen consistently since the 1980s among middle-school, high-school, and college students. But, she says, what starts off as healthy self-esteem can quickly morph into an inflated view of oneself—a self-absorption and sense of entitlement that looks a lot like narcissism. In fact, rates of narcissism among college students have increased right along with self-esteem.

Meanwhile, rates of anxiety and depression have also risen in tandem with self-esteem. Why is this? “Narcissists are happy when they’re younger, because they’re the center of the universe,” Twenge explains. “Their parents act like their servants, shuttling them to any activity they choose and catering to their every desire. Parents are constantly telling their children how special and talented they are. This gives them an inflated view of their specialness compared to other human beings. Instead of feeling good about themselves, they feel better than everyone else.”

In early adulthood, this becomes a big problem. “People who feel like they’re unusually special end up alienating those around them,” Twenge says. “They don’t know how to work on teams as well or deal with limits. They get into the workplace and expect to be stimulated all the time, because their worlds were so structured with activities. They don’t like being told by a boss that their work might need improvement, and they feel insecure if they don’t get a constant stream of praise. They grew up in a culture where everyone gets a trophy just for participating, which is ludicrous and makes no sense when you apply it to actual sports games or work performance. Who would watch an NBA game with no winners or losers? Should everyone get paid the same amount, or get promoted, when some people have superior performance? They grew up in a bubble, so they get out into the real world and they start to feel lost and helpless. Kids who always have problems solved for them believe that they don’t know how to solve problems. And they’re right—they don’t.”

Last month, I spoke to a youth soccer coach in Washington, D.C. A former competitive college athlete and now a successful financier, he told me that when he first learned of the youth league’s rules—including no score-keeping—he found them “ridiculous.”

How are the kids going to learn? he thought. He valued his experience as an athlete, through which he had been forced to deal with defeat. “I used to think, If we don’t keep score, we’re going to have a bunch of wusses out there. D.C. can be very PC, and I thought this was going too far.”

Eventually, though, he came around to the new system, because he realized that some kids would be “devastated” if they got creamed by a large margin. “We don’t want them to feel bad,” he said. “We don’t want kids to feel any pressure.” (When I told Wendy Mogel about this, she literally screamed through the phone line, “Please let them be devastated at age 6 and not have their first devastation be in college! Please, please, please let them be devastated many times on the soccer field!”) I told the coach this sounded goofy, given that these kids attend elite, competitive schools like Georgetown Day School or Sidwell Friends, where President Obama’s daughters go. They’re being raised by parents who are serious about getting their kids into Harvard and Yale. Aren’t these kids exposed to a lot of pressure? And besides, how is not keeping score protecting anyone, since, as he conceded, the kids keep score on their own anyway? When the score is close, the coach explained, it’s less of an issue. But blowouts are a problem.

He told me about a game against a very talented team. “We lost 10–5, and the other team dominated it. Our kids were very upset. They said, ‘We got killed!’ and I said, ‘What are you talking about? You guys beat the spread! The team we beat last week lost 14–1!’ The kids thought about this for a second and then were like, ‘You’re right, we were great! We rule!’ They felt so much better, because I turned it around for them into something positive. When you get killed and there’s no positive spin, the kids think they’re failures. It damages their self-esteem.”

At the end of the season, the league finds a way to “honor each child” with a trophy. “They’re kind of euphemistic,” the coach said of the awards, “but they’re effective.” The Spirit Award went to “the troublemaker who always talks and doesn’t pay attention, so we spun it into his being very ‘spirited,’” he said. The Most Improved Player Award went to “the kid who has not an ounce of athleticism in his body, but he tries hard.” The Coaches’ Award went to “the kids who were picking daisies, and the only thing we could think to say about them is that they showed up on time. What would that be, the Most Prompt Award? That seemed lame. So we called it the Coaches’ Award.” There’s also a Most Valuable Player Award, but the kid who deserved it three seasons in a row got it only after the first season, “because we wanted other kids to have a chance to get it.” The coach acknowledged that everyone knew who the real MVP was. But, he said, “this is a more collaborative approach versus the way I grew up as a competitive athlete, which was a selfish, Me Generation orientation.”

I asked Wendy Mogel if this gentler approach really creates kids who are less self-involved, less “Me Generation.” No, she said. Just the opposite: parents who protect their kids from accurate feedback teach them that they deserve special treatment. “A principal at an elementary school told me that a parent asked a teacher not to use red pens for corrections,” she said, “because the parent felt it was upsetting to kids when they see so much red on the page. This is the kind of self-absorption we’re seeing, in the name of our children’s self-esteem.”

Paradoxically, all of this worry about creating low self-esteem might actually perpetuate it. No wonder my patient Lizzie told me she felt “less amazing” than her parents had always said she was. Given how “amazing” her parents made her out to be, how could she possibly live up to that? Instead of acknowledging their daughter’s flaws, her parents, hoping to make her feel secure, denied them. “I’m bad at math,” Lizzie said she once told them, when she noticed that the math homework was consistently more challenging for her than for many of her classmates. “You’re not bad at math,” her parents responded. “You just have a different learning style. We’ll get you a tutor to help translate the information into a format you naturally understand.”

With much struggle, the tutor helped Lizzie get her grade up, but she still knew that other classmates were good at math and she wasn’t. “I didn’t have a different learning style,” she told me. “I just suck at math! But in my family, you’re never bad at anything. You’re just better at some things than at others. If I ever say I’m bad at something, my parents say, ‘Oh, honey, no you’re not!’”

Today, Wendy Mogel says, “every child is either learning-disabled, gifted, or both—there’s no curve left, no average.” When she first started doing psychological testing, in the 1980s, she would dread having to tell parents that their child had a learning disability. But now, she says, parents would prefer to believe that their child has a learning disability that explains any less-than-stellar performance, rather than have their child be perceived as simply average. “They believe that ‘average’ is bad for self-esteem.”

THE IRONY IS that measures of self-esteem are poor predictors of how content a person will be, especially if the self-esteem comes from constant accommodation and praise rather than earned accomplishment. According to Jean Twenge, research shows that much better predictors of life fulfillment and success are perseverance, resiliency, and reality-testing—qualities that people need so they can navigate the day-to-day.

Earlier this year, I met with a preschool teacher who told me that in her observation, many kids aren’t learning these skills anymore. She declined to be named, for fear of alienating parents who expect teachers to agree with their child-rearing philosophy, so I’ll call her Jane.

Let’s say, Jane explained, that a mother is over by the sign-in sheet, and her son has raced off to play. Suddenly the mother sees her kid fighting over a toy with a classmate. Her child has the dump truck, and the other kid grabs it. Her child yells, “No! That’s mine!” The two argue while the other kid continues to play with the truck, until finally the other kid says, “This one is yours!” and tosses her child a crappy one. Realizing the other kid won’t budge, her child says, “Okay,” and plays with the crappy toy.

“Her kid is fine,” Jane said. “But the mother will come running over and say, ‘But that’s not fair! Little Johnnie had the big truck, and you can’t just grab it away. It was his turn.’ Well, the kids were fine with it. Little Johnnie was resilient! We do teach the kids not to grab, but it’s going to happen sometimes, and kids need to learn how to work things out themselves. The kid can cope with adversity, but the parent is reeling, and I end up spending my time calming down the parent while her kid is off happily playing.”

Jane told me that because parents are so sensitive to how every interaction is processed, sometimes she feels like she’s walking on eggshells while trying to do her job. If, for instance, a couple of kids are doing something they’re not supposed to—name-calling, climbing on a table, throwing sand—her instinct would be to say “Hey, knock it off, you two!” But, she says, she’d be fired for saying that, because you have to go talk with the kids, find out what they were feeling, explain what else they could do with that feeling other than call somebody a “poopy face” or put sand in somebody’s hair, and then help them mutually come up with a solution.

“We try to be so correct in our language and our discipline that we forget the true message we’re trying to send—which is, don’t name-call and don’t throw the sand!” she said. “But by the time we’re done ‘talking it through,’ the kids don’t want to play anymore, a rote apology is made, and they’ll do it again five minutes later, because they kind of got a pass. ‘Knock it off’ works every time, because they already know why it’s wrong, and the message is concise and clear. But to keep my job, I have to go and explore their feelings.”

Another teacher I spoke with, a 58-year-old mother of grown children who has been teaching kindergarten for 17 years, told me she feels that parents are increasingly getting in the way of their children’s development. “I see the way their parents treat them,” she said, “and there’s a big adjustment when they get into my class. It’s good for them to realize that they aren’t the center of the world, that sometimes other people’s feelings matter more than theirs at a particular moment—but it only helps if they’re getting the same limit-setting at home. If not, they become impulsive, because they’re not thinking about anybody else.”

This same teacher—who asked not to be identified, for fear of losing her job—says she sees many parents who think they’re setting limits, when actually, they’re just being wishy-washy. “A kid will say, ‘Can we get ice cream on the way home?’ And the parent will say, ‘No, it’s not our day. Ice-cream day is Friday.’ Then the child will push and negotiate, and the parent, who probably thinks negotiating is ‘honoring her child’s opinion,’ will say, ‘Fine, we’ll get ice cream today, but don’t ask me tomorrow, because the answer is no!’” The teacher laughed. “Every year, parents come to me and say, ‘Why won’t my child listen to me? Why won’t she take no for an answer?’ And I say, ‘Your child won’t take no for an answer, because the answer is never no!’”

Barry Schwartz, at Swarthmore, believes that well-meaning parents give their kids so much choice on a daily basis that the children become not just entitled, but paralyzed. “The ideology of our time is that choice is good and more choice is better,” he said. “But we’ve found that’s not true.”

In one study Schwartz and his team conducted, kids were randomly divided into two groups and then asked to draw a picture. Kids in one group were asked to choose a marker to use from among three; kids in the other group were asked to choose from among 24 markers. Afterward, when the pictures were evaluated by an elementary-school art teacher who did not know which group had produced which pictures, the drawings rated the “worst” were by and large created by kids in the 24-marker group. Then, in a second part of the experiment, the researchers had the kids pick one marker from their set to keep as a gift. Once the kids had chosen, the researchers tried to persuade them to give back their marker in exchange for other gifts. The kids who had chosen from 24 markers did this far more easily than those who had chosen from only three markers. According to Schwartz, this suggests that the kids who had fewer markers to select from not only focused better on their drawings, but also committed more strongly to their original gift choice.

What does this have to do with parenting? Kids feel safer and less anxious with fewer choices, Schwartz says; fewer options help them to commit to some things and let go of others, a skill they’ll need later in life.

“Research shows that people get more satisfaction from working hard at one thing, and that those who always need to have choices and keep their options open get left behind,” Schwartz told me. “I’m not saying don’t let your kid try out various interests or activities. I’m saying give them choices, but within reason. Most parents tell kids, ‘You can do anything you want, you can quit any time, you can try this other thing if you’re not 100 percent satisfied with the other.’ It’s no wonder they live their lives that way as adults, too.” He sees this in students who graduate from Swarthmore. “They can’t bear the thought that saying yes to one interest or opportunity means saying no to everything else, so they spend years hoping that the perfect answer will emerge. What they don’t understand is that they’re looking for the perfect answer when they should be looking for the good-enough answer.”

The message we send kids with all the choices we give them is that they are entitled to a perfect life—that, as Dan Kindlon, the psychologist from Harvard, puts it, “if they ever feel a twinge of non-euphoria, there should be another option.” Mogel puts it even more bluntly: what parents are creating with all this choice are anxious and entitled kids whom she describes as “handicapped royalty.”

As a parent, I’m all too familiar with this. I never said to my son, “Here’s your grilled-cheese sandwich.” I’d say, “Do you want the grilled cheese or the fish sticks?” On a Saturday, I’d say, “Do you want to go to the park or the beach?” Sometimes, if my preschooler was having a meltdown over the fact that we had to go to the grocery store, instead of swooping him up and wrestling him into the car, I’d give him a choice: “Do you want to go to Trader Joe’s or Ralphs?” (Once we got to the market, it was “Do you want the vanilla yogurt or the peach?”) But after I’d set up this paradigm, we couldn’t do anything unless he had a choice. One day when I said to him, “Please put your shoes on, we’re going to Trader Joe’s,” he replied matter-of-factly: “What are my other choices?” I told him there were no other choices—we needed something from Trader Joe’s. “But it’s not fair if I don’t get to decide too!” he pleaded ingenuously. He’d come to expect unlimited choice.

When I was my son’s age, I didn’t routinely get to choose my menu, or where to go on weekends—and the friends I asked say they didn’t, either. There was some negotiation, but not a lot, and we were content with that. We didn’t expect so much choice, so it didn’t bother us not to have it until we were older, when we were ready to handle the responsibility it requires. But today, Twenge says, “we treat our kids like adults when they’re children, and we infantilize them when they’re 18 years old.”

Like most of my peers, I’d always thought that providing choices to young children gave them a valuable sense of agency, and allowed them to feel more in control. But Barry Schwartz’s research shows that too much choice makes people more likely to feel depressed and out of control.

It makes sense. I remember how overwhelmed and anxious I felt that day I visited the parenting aisle at Barnes & Noble and was confronted by all those choices. How much easier things would be if there weren’t hundreds of parenting books and listservs and experts that purport to have the answers, when the truth is, there is no single foolproof recipe for raising a child.

And yet, underlying all this parental angst is the hopeful belief that if we just make the right choices, that if we just do things a certain way, our kids will turn out to be not just happy adults, but adults that make us happy. This is a misguided notion, because while nurture certainly matters, it doesn’t completely trump nature, and different kinds of nurture work for different kinds of kids (which explains why siblings can have very different experiences of their childhoods under the same roof). We can expose our kids to art, but we can’t teach them creativity. We can try to protect them from nasty classmates and bad grades and all kinds of rejection and their own limitations, but eventually they will bump up against these things anyway. In fact, by trying so hard to provide the perfectly happy childhood, we’re just making it harder for our kids to actually grow up. Maybe we parents are the ones who have some growing up to do—and some letting go.

As Wendy Mogel likes to say, “Our children are not our masterpieces.”

Indeed. Recently, I noticed that one of my patients had, after a couple of sessions of therapy, started to seem uncomfortable. When I probed a bit, he admitted that he felt ambivalent about being in treatment. I asked why.

“My parents would feel like failures if they knew I was here,” he explained. “At the same time, maybe they’d be glad I’m here, because they just want me to be happy. So I’m not sure if they’d be relieved that I’ve come here to be happier, or disappointed that I’m not already happy.”

He paused and then asked, “Do you know what I mean?”

I nodded like a therapist, and then I answered like a parent who can imagine her son grappling with that very same question one day. “Yes,” I said to my patient. “I know exactly what you mean.”

Paul Krugman on Inspiration for a Liberal Economist

From “The Browser” Interview By Sophie Roell

Continuing our weekly series on American progressivism, we talk to the Nobel prize-winning economist, Paul Krugman, on why he counts himself a liberal

I wanted to start by saying how pleased I am you call yourself a liberal, because there are a lot of people – politicians – who are reluctant to be associated with the word.

As I see it, there has been a lot of effective propaganda. As a result, a lot of people adopted the term “progressive” as a somehow less charged way of saying the same thing, which I don’t think works. I consider myself both – liberal and progressive. It’s not too different from what would be called a social democrat in Europe – you believe in a decent-sized welfare state, you believe that we are our brothers’ keepers. Of course I’m not a politician so I can afford to label myself in a way that might lose some votes…

The first book you’ve chosen isn’t about economics at all; it’s a work of science-fiction, Isaac Asimov’s Foundation trilogy. But was it part of what inspired you to become an economist?

Yes. This is a very unusual set of novels from Isaac Asimov, but a classic. It’s not about gadgets. Although it’s supposed to be about a galactic civilisation, the technology is virtually invisible and it’s not about space battles or anything like that. The story is about these people, psychohistorians, who are mathematical social scientists and have a theory about how society works. The theory tells them that the galactic empire is failing, and they then use that knowledge to save civilisation. It’s a great image. I was probably 16 when I read it and I thought, “I want to be one of those guys!” Unfortunately we don’t have anything like that and economics is the closest I could get.

I do get a sense from your columns in The New York Times that you are on a mission…

Obviously I try to do straight economics and I do it as well as I can. But this is for a purpose. That purpose is not to find better ways of making money – although I have no problem with people doing that. The purpose is actually to make a better world. So yes, I do feel that I am trying to do something that goes beyond just the analysis.

When I read your book, The Conscience of a Liberal, I came to realise that that purpose is to save the middle-class America you grew up in. Do you feel it’s under threat?

It’s not under threat – it’s actually largely, but not completely, gone. We’re trying to recapture it. We really have had a tremendous polarisation [in wealth]. People notice it every once in a while and it comes as a huge revelation to them. So for example, in last week’s New York Times, Nicholas Kristof had a column about how maybe we’re turning into Pakistan. It’s clear that we are not at all the relatively equal middle-class society we were, and we’re getting less so. That’s something you want to try to turn around.

Your second book is An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding by the 18th-century British philosopher David Hume. You read this in college and it really changed your life.

Yes. I was at that stage, a college sophomore or thereabouts, when you’re searching around, looking for belief systems. I think it’s actually a point when you’re quite vulnerable, because you are looking for someone who is going to offer you all the answers. Some people turn to religious orthodoxy, other people turn to Ayn Rand. One of my favourite lines – and I haven’t been able to find out who came up with it – is that “There’s an age when boys read one of two books. Either they read Ayn Rand or they read Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings. One of these books leaves you with no grasp on reality and a deeply warped sense of fantasy in place of real life. The other one is about hobbits and orcs.”

Then I read Hume’s Enquiry, this wonderful, humane book saying that nobody has all the answers. What we know is what we have evidence for. We do the best we can, but anybody who claims to be able to deduce or have revelation about The Truth – with both Ts capitalised – is wrong. It doesn’t work that way. The only reasonable way to approach life is with an attitude of humane scepticism. I felt that a great weight had been lifted from my shoulders when I read that book.

Because before that you felt the pressure to adopt a particular belief system?

I felt the pull of them. You look at people who are very certain, and have these beliefs of one form or another and you think, “Maybe they really know something!” And what Hume says is, “Actually, no. They don’t.”

Wouldn’t some people accuse you of having an extremely strong belief system? Isn’t there a sense among liberals that, “We’re in the right so we don’t have to pay too much attention to conservative or Republican arguments”?

In my experience with these things – which I find both within economics and more broadly  – is that if you ask a liberal or a saltwater economist, “What would somebody on the other side of this divide say here? What would their version of it be?” A liberal can do that. A liberal can talk coherently about what the conservative view is because people like me actually do listen. We don’t think it’s right, but we pay enough attention to see what the other person is trying to get at. The reverse is not true. You try to get someone who is fiercely anti-Keynesian to even explain what a Keynesian economic argument is, they can’t do it. They can’t get it remotely right. Or if you ask a conservative, “What do liberals want?” You get this bizarre stuff – for example, that liberals want everybody to ride trains, because it makes people more susceptible to collectivism. You just have to look at the realities of the way each side talks and what they know. One side of the picture is open-minded and sceptical. We have views that are different, but they’re arrived at through paying attention. The other side has dogmatic views.

In one of the books by Keynes you recommended, he quotes Clissold saying of the Labour Party – the left in England at the time  – that they have “feelings in place of ideas”. Is that a valid critique of the left?

That’s hardly true of Keynes. What a deeply reasoned piece of work that book is! And I don’t think it’s true of someone like me. Yes, I do have feelings, but take a look, for example, at the debate that’s playing out over healthcare right now. I’d like to say I bring in evidence. I’m not saying, “Here is the way the world ought to be, so it must be that way.” I try to show how different systems work.

As all other developed countries already have universal healthcare, it certainly seems like the right thing for the US to finally do.

But then the question is whether it’s feasible. What does it take? This is the right thing to do, but how do you do it? It’s a combination of modeling it, of looking at evidence from other systems, of looking at evidence from our own system. And provided the thing [The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act] isn’t overturned in the next couple of years, provided we can make it to 2014 when the system is fully in place, it will become a completely natural feature of American life. It’s not the system I would have designed if I didn’t have to worry about the politics, but I’ll take this highly imperfect system.

Let’s go on to Keynes’s General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money. Unemployment in Keynes’s day was 25%, and this, I believe, is what prompted him to write his famous book. I’ve been trying to read it over the weekend and I was wondering if it isn’t quite hard to understand if you don’t have a Nobel prize in economics? Or at least a PhD?

It is a difficult book, because it’s the first book that tries to figure this stuff out.  You don’t teach Keynesian economics from Keynes anymore.  Keynes was actually working on The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Moneybefore the Great Depression, but obviously the Great Depression gave it urgency. It’s a first stab – it’s one hell of a first stab – but because it is a first stab, it’s got all the awkwardnesses that go with that. He goes off on tangents that seemed important to him at the time, but don’t seem so important now. It’s not an easy read.

It’s a book to be read when you’re a practicing economist with a fair bit of research of your own under your belt. Because then, as you read it, you can see the incredible process he’s going through, of freeing himself from the preconceptions of the economic analysis of his time. You can see him saying, “Hey, wait, maybe that’s not right. How can I think this through, how can I make this a story that actually fits the world I see around me?” There is stuff in there where you say, “What the hell is that about?” For example, there’s a whole discussion about the choice of units, which is, in fact, very boring. But having been through minor versions of that kind of process myself… the mechanics, the plumbing of your theory, is often critical. You work really hard to try to put that together, and Keynes is laying it out as he did it. It’s really breathtaking and inspirational.

In terms of our current situation, and what The General Theory can tell us, the book doesn’t actually say very much about fiscal stimulus or does it?

It’s implied. It’s clear from the book that you can have a problem of inadequate spending and that just printing more money, under some circumstances, does nothing. In that case you have to have the government come in and spend. Elsewhere, Keynes was more explicit about it, but you can deduce it from the framework of The General TheoryOnce you understand the logic of the kind of slump we’re in, once you understand it’s very much the same kind of slump we were in in the 1930s, then the case for fiscal stimulus flows out of that analysis.

At one point Keynes says that economics is a “difficult and technical” subject that will eventually be left to specialists, like dentistry.

That’s actually from my next book, his Essays in Persuasion, which are real time analyses, many of them written for popular magazines.

So applying that comment to fiscal stimulus, which is a key issue that you, as a liberal economist, support but most right-wing economists oppose, if economics has become more like dentistry, why, on an issue like stimulus, is the economics community divided between left and right? Because while dentists might disagree about whether to pull a tooth or not, it would probably not be along ideological lines.

Keynes was really expressing a hope, rather than making a prediction. He was saying I hope that we will eventually become like dentists, that it will be just a technical discipline. And probably that was one place where his wisdom failed him. Because the fact of the matter is there is too much interest at stake in economic policy. In the world in which we now live, there is no such thing as neutral advice or neutral expertise. The division is partly an intellectual division, which is overlaid with a political division. They mostly match up, but not totally.

The idea of an activist government policy to fight recessions is controversial, and deeply opposed by certain factions, in part because they think it will hurt their interests directly and in part because they fear that it opens the door for an active role for government, for liberalism in general. Then you have the intellectual division, which, in a way, goes back to Hume. On one side there are the people who start with an axiomatic, “This is the way it must be” view of economics – it’s all about perfectly rational individuals interacting through perfect markets. In that view, there is no room for Keynesian economics, but of course there is also no room for the slumps like the one we’re in. Then there are people who say that maximising behaviour may be a useful strategic simplification, but if it doesn’t seem to fit the facts… We don’t use it where it doesn’t seem to work. That would be my position. So you have the division within the economics profession over epistemology, you could say, and then a division along political lines. Those two are matching up almost precisely right now.

But how strong is the proof that fiscal stimulus works? At the beginning of the crisis, I asked my sister and her husband, both former colleagues of yours at Princeton about it. They said it wasn’t certain it worked, but given the lack of alternatives, it was better than doing nothing. Is the evidence stronger than that?

I think it’s stronger. We can’t do controlled experiments with economies. You can’t prove something the way you can prove something in physics. But we have a number of pretty clear cases. We have the Great Depression, which was ended by a very large fiscal stimulus, otherwise known as World War II. The 1930s is, in many ways, the best laboratory. You can see that when Mussolini did a military build-up, it expanded the Italian economy exactly as a Keynesian would have predicted.

Of course it’s not as clear-cut as one would like. It’s not as if you can find someone who is doing a fiscal expansion while holding everything else constant. Life doesn’t work that way. But compared to a lot of other things people believe in economics – about the efficiency of the markets, or what will happen if you raise taxes – it’s a lot better established. There are a lot of propositions in economics that are held with great firmness that actually have no clear historical evidence behind them. Fiscal policy is, if anything, actually a bit better grounded in the evidence.

Let’s talk a bit more about Keynes’s Essays in Persuasion. I think you warned me that you need to know a bit about the history of the time to fully understand it, but I really enjoyed reading it. He has some great comments about stay-at-home wives getting depressed, which I hadn’t expected at all. He’s also very prescient about the Treaty of Versailles and the devastating effects that would have. He really was a Cassandra in that regard. And he has some pretty good predictions about the future, and how prosperous society will become…

Well, some of them. This business about us becoming so rich that people would stop caring about consuming even more, that turns out not to be true. About enough time has passed for that blissful state to have arrived according to him, and somehow greed always finds a way. But yes, the comments on Versailles are amazing.

He also has a bit of a discussion about whether or not he is a liberal. He has this great quote, that “if the Liberal Party is to recover its forces, it must have an attitude, a philosophy and a direction.”

So this is an old Liberal, with a capital L – the Liberal Party of England, which was the old opposition to the forces of conservatism, which was then displaced by the rise of the Labour Party [which was further to the left] in the first half of the 20th century. That’s a very different kind of problem from what we have now. Keynes was not happy with the Labour Party. I suspect had I lived in his time I would have been more sympathetic to the Labour Party than he was, but he was obviously repelled by the Conservatives.

I think it was the Liberals who introduced the beginnings of a welfare state in England, though.

They introduced some pieces of it. The full thing came from the Labour Party after World War II. And obviously Keynes supported that. We probably could say that Keynes was what we could call a liberal in America now, or a moderate social democrat in Europe.

But you think you’re a bit further to the left than Keynes? You’re definitely more pro-trade union than he was.

I think that’s partly because I’ve got an additional 75 years of, critically, US political economy to look back at. I’m a bit uncertain about the strictly economic role of trade unions, but the political importance of having a counterweight to big business is just overwhelming.

As your last book, you’ve chosen James Tobin, Essays in Economics. You mentioned in an email to me that this is for professionals only, but tell me a bit about it and why you like it.

I took introductory economics with Jim Tobin. He was a great economist and I learned an enormous amount from him, though he isn’t very fashionable these days. This is a collection of his best papers, which I read, admittedly a long, long time ago. But when I go back to it, I realise how much I’ve internalised Tobin’s approach. Some way into this crisis I realised how much I was relying on his way of thinking about how financial markets work. It was an approach that was pragmatic and yet model-based. It went very much out of fashion as we shifted towards thinking of everything in terms of efficient markets, perfect use of information et cetera. And unjustly so, because that [newer approach] turns out to be no help at all in thinking about things like, “Well, what does Ben Bernanke’s latest policy actually do to the economy?”

The book is like The General Theory – Tobin is a much clearer writer than Keynes, though a little less stylish. Again, he’s pragmatic – we’ve got tools of economic modeling, but we need to apply them in a way that deals with the world as we find it. Politically Tobin was very much a free-market, welfare-state Keynesian, as I am. We appreciate markets, we understand them, we don’t hate rich people, but we want a social safety net and you do need government intervention to avoid what we are going through right now.

Tobin’s early work was very much admired, and of course he won the Nobel prize in 1981. But my understanding is that when the rational expectations revolution happened, he didn’t take it seriously enough, and was a bit of an inflexible Keynesian in his later years?

He was. He resisted it, and he probably resisted it a bit too much. But the fact of the matter is that a lot of the things he thought were nonsense actually turn out to be nonsense. He didn’t handle it very well, and his hostility to the new trends in macroeconomics after about 1975 or so made him look like an old fuddy-duddy to many people. But he has actually been vindicated by events. In the light of recent events I’d say he was mostly right. His instincts were not 100%, but he was 80% right.

Are you still in favour of a Tobin tax?

It’s funny he became famous for that. It was almost a suggestion in passing and it wasn’t the core of his work. On the Tobin tax, I always thought the administrative difficulties were very high. Since then people have been telling me it’s not as hard as you think. If it could be done, I would favour it, but it’s not the main thing I’m looking for, it’s not the core of what I’m in favour of.

What’s your view of fiscal stimulus with a balanced budget?

There is a theory that you can have balanced budget stimulus. I think it’s a little bit too cute. It’s something that maybe, in principle, could work, but in practice I wouldn’t count on it. I actually believe that, right now, deficits are our friend. Not long-term, but for now, we need deficit spending. I also think that if we didn’t have the deficits we have right now we would be in the middle of a second Great Depression.

And hasn’t QE2 [the second round of quantitative easing] been a bit of a failure? I heard that banks have been using it to make money on carry trades, basically negating its impact.

It had some effect. Mostly on the expectations side. That is a long story. There was a whole group of us at Princeton, about 10 years ago, who were worrying about, “What do you do if you find yourself in a situation like we are in now, where short-term interest rates are zero and that’s not low enough?” There was a division of views between one side, which is the side that I was on, which said that you have to work through expectations. On the other side was Ben Bernanke. He said that you could do it through expanding the Fed’s balance sheet. Now we’re very much playing out those arguments in real time. I guess I’d say that QE2 was helpful. I think we forget fairly quickly how much panic there was about the state of the economy last summer. I would be in favour of doing more, though I’m not highly confident that it will do everything we need.

We’ve talked about older books. What about a modern Keynesian? Whose work do you most admire right now?

Michael Woodford is probably our leading technical Keynesian theorist. He does beautiful stuff. But there are a whole bunch of people whose work I read because they either do the empirical work or just have a good way of thinking about it. Then there are people who are effectively Keynesians, although that’s not where most of their work is. Joe Stiglitz is just a spectacular economist, who has done work that has been the basis of half a dozen fields. I’m unstinting in my admiration there.

From “The Browser”

Interview by Sophie Roell – Published Jun 19, 2011



To make a long piece even longer, I offer two responses to the original article that, I think, illustrate the argument between two different economic viewpoints: first, the Austrian School of Economics (think of it as the origins of Rand’s libertarianism); second, the Keynesian School of Economics (that economics which led us out of the Great Depression and into the greatest wealth-building and egalitarian phase of US economic growth… ever).

First up… the Austrian School:

  1. We can’t know everything that is going on in something as complex as “the economy.
  2. In such as situation, evidence is worthless.
  3. We can know the basis of human nature, which at its core is to maximize our happiness.
  4. We can use logic from here to determine what will happen in any given interaction and build the basis of our economic analysis from logic rather than from evidence, which of course can be twisted to tell us whatever we want it to tell us because we can’t know what it’s actually telling us.
  5. In economics, therefore, logic must come before evidence.

Krugman is simply the court jester for the state. He says what those in power like to hear, i.e. that stimulus is good, so he is by default the wizard of smart.

Logically, with no evidence only clear thinking, money for an economic stimulus can be gotten in two ways:

  1. The printing press.
  2. Increased taxation.

These are the only two basic ways for a government to generate the money necessary for a stimulus. Taxing it from the people and giving it back to them is senseless because it does not place more money in the hands of the people.

Printing more money leads to lower interest rates because there is more money supply which needs to be moved. Higher supply yields lower prices, which in money’s case is the interest rate.

Lower interest rates signal people and companies that it’s time to start building capital goods such as houses and factories. There are two problems here. First, without the lower interest rate the capital good would never have been built. Second, the stimulus creates a fake signal which indicates that there are material resources in the system to complete the capital project. There aren’t. No new wealth was created, only new money. More people are grasping for the same amount of resources. This causes prices to rise and results in half-finished capital projects which have locked wealth in them, a net destructive effect. This is what Austrians refer to as malinvestment.

Destroying something and replacing it with something new is not economic stimulus. If it were, then we should be able to burn our cities down to get out of our current economic crisis. Now, I am only an economic laymen and I don’t have a nobel prize or a degree in economics, but just this cursory explanation says more about what is actually going on in a stimulus than Krugman’s “I like stimulus because it gets me invited to all the right cocktail parties.” Paul Krugman is a liberal who happens to practice economics, not the other way around.


And next up… the Keynesian School:

I can see WHY no one has bothered to answer your rant. It actually proves Krugman’s point better than a straight argument ever could.

I have no idea where you learned that the first five “points” you make could be called “logic,” but I have never seen such an example of illogic except as examples of the process of developing ideas that are false that logic is designed to prevent.

Take the first three “points”:

  1. We can’t know everything in subjects that exceed a certain level of complexity. This is certainly true, in particular something like the weather.
  2. When the subject is too complex, data about what is happening is worthless for predicting what will happen or how to prevent something from happening. It will be too simplistic to just say “You are throwing out the baby with the bathwater.” But just because you cannot tell if or precisely when a tornado will form, should you really not even try to determine the conditions when they are likely to occur? Do you just not bother to tell airplanes to avoid the region where conditions for tornado formation are strong?
  3. Then what you take for point three: We can know the basis of human nature. Knowing human nature is one of the most complex problems we face; can we really know all its complexities? Certainly humans want happiness, but most do not know how to define it, not to mention measuring it and what generates it. A component is pleasure, but humans will do many things that do not give pleasure directly in the hope (?) of future rewards? Maybe sometimes, maybe not other times. But getting pleasure can come from many different things, not equally desirable in all measures.

But some human responses can be measured, at least in the aggregate, to show a general trend in human responses to certain stimuli, in certain conditions. But what do you think empirical evidence is? It is DATA, showing what happened in the economy, in this instance; you may disagree with the measures, such as GDP, which clearly is NOT a measure of the happiness of humans. Even on the individual level, British conservatives are promoting the separate measure of happiness as determined by the latest psychological research. Now, whether this is more motivated as a distraction from the downturn the U.K. economy is taking due to the misbegotten austerity policies being instituted by the government, or a genuine desire to show that prosperity is not everything in life (which IS true), you can make your own judgment.

It would seem that Austrian “economics” is content to make some unsustainable axioms and then build on them in a new “logic” that does not even have to follow the established rules for deriving new postulates. Maybe that is because the “postulates” they want are what they desire to see, not what the real world supports in reality. You could not make Dr. Krugman’s case more strongly.

4.  Your point four, that “evidence” can be twisted but logic (from false premises) will lead to the desired result. I submit that, while evidence can be falsely INTERPRETED, you use twisted logic to derive your PREORDAINED results from unsupportable axioms.

5.  Logic must come before evidence. Point five falls of its own weight (or lack thereof).

I offer some clearer thinking on your two sources of money:

The stimulus money can be the money of savers who cannot spend their own money. When a substantial proportion of the individuals in a (closed) group borrow and overspend, and then their source of income which was financing that overspending dries up, they (rightly, on a individual basis) stop spending and start to save. But one person’s spending is another person’s income; and if the total income is to remain constant (or grow) someone else must spend. Now, with everyone in the private sector seeing no profit in spending, they will NOT spend (at least enough beyond survival rates). But for just that reason, no one is borrowing either, so interest rates are extremely low and the government CAN borrow and spend to create (extra) incomes for those individuals unemployed or underemployed, allowing them to pay down their debt and more quickly return to the role of consumers, which will then (and only then) generate the demand that businesses will see and start hiring more workers and buying capital goods.

Right now, the interest rates are just about as low as they can get; thus in ANY environment, it would be wise for the government to borrow and build infrastructure or spend to improve education of the populace, increasing its productivity (or its ability to reach happiness?), as well as MANY other things that would put people to work!

If the group has to wait until the unemployed or underemployed get debt relief or pay down their debt with a limping economy, it will take much longer, a decade or multiple decades, possibly. Think of the lost jobs and production that cannot be replaced.

For the righteous following of an unproven theory, the group is supposed to sacrifice the “happiness” of a significant portion of that group while a few continue to profit? That seems the definition of class warfare.

And your ad hominem attacks (or is it just personal abuse?) against Dr. Krugman only make your case weaker, as if it was a strong case you would not need to lower yourself to that level.

As for your claim that Krugman says what those in power “like to hear,” that is easy to show as TOTALLY false. He actually rails against those VERY SERIOUS PEOPLE (VSPs) who populate the top politician class today. This clearly includes every national Republican politician, as they have  a mantra to do anything to bring Obama down, and making sure the economy does not recover seems (to them) an exemplary vehicle for that end. [Talk about cutting off your nose to spite your face!] And even Obama and his advisors (out loud, at least) seem to believe in confidence fairies and inflation zombies.

The thing that Prof. Krugman values highest is making correct predictions about the future. What better measure is there for valuing a person’s opinion, when that opinion has been vindicated repeatedly?

Seeing your mishmash of an exposition, I can come closer to understanding Milton Friedman’s contempt for Ludwig von Mises.

This is a shortened exposition and a lot is left out; I suggest READING some of the five books nominated here by Prof. Krugman plus others recommended in those references. You really might LEARN something, if you can try to understand the basic assumptions of the argument and how to make sense of admittedly difficult to analyze data, and not just try to find something, ANYTHING, wrong. Usually what you think is wrong will turn out to be correct when you can see it in the real context.

I am sure you will look for some detail that I have left out and jump all over that, thinking that will make the totality wrong. Well, it does not work that way. And when you make claims, show examples.